Engagement factors and thus the researcher decided to

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engagement factors and thus the researcher decided to build an educational game from scratch rather than use an existing one. This also had the advantage that the researcher had control over the number and quality of engagement factors that could be designed into the game from the outset. The researcher could also ensure that the game would be freely available and would work on a stand-alone tablet. A further justification for this approach is based on the findings from the background work with the teachers using the Technology Acceptance Model in Chapter 5. This highlighted a number of additional constraints on using games in the classroom. The researcher was keen to ensure that the educational game considered the concerns of the teachers about time constraints, technology efficacy and the availability of resources. The teachers have previously mentioned that given the mathematics period ( period is the allocated time on the class day time-table for a particular subject) is thirty minutes, a game should be playable in around ten minutes to ensure it could be fitted into this period and still allow time for other mathematical activities. Also it was important to consider the expertise of teachers and the learning curve required of them by the game. It was clear that specific and simple instructions would be required to use the game in the classroom. All these factors may not have been considered in the design and development of an on-shelf digital educational game. Having decided to build a game, the researcher had to consider the design constraints in terms of development time and expertise. It was decided that a fully developed game would take too much time to develop and a working prototype could be designed and developed that could still be used to test out the main theories from this research and would be an effective tool for use in the classroom. The next section considers the game genres that can be appropriate for learning and their corresponding educational values. Game Genres and Learning Unlike regular digital entertainment games that have entertainment as their ultimate aim, effective digital educational games must be primarily based on learning theories. As discussed earlier in chapter 2, there are a number of different learning theories that support game-based learning, each with their own advantages and challenges. Some Therefore the
117 game genre should be selected carefully for a digital educational game to ensure it supports the learners and improves their educational experience. In the literature, the concept of game genre has not fully evolved and is not well defined (Clearwater, 2011) with many different types of categorisation, often insufficient to cover the range of games available today. This is because there are some games that do not fit into any of the major genres and some that can fall into more than one genre (Khenissi et al, 2016).

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