As journalist liza featherstone explains in divining

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(5) As journalist Liza Featherstone explains in Divining Desire: Focus Groups and the Culture of Consultation, the social role of focus groups has changed over time in response to political and economic developments. (6) According to one executive interviewed by Featherstone, "You can't use focus groups to create an idea … a focus group would create an Edsel." (7) The executive refers to a famously unsuccessful 1957 car model whose shortcomings were blamed on the development team's excessive use of focus groups. (8) But, as Featherstone shows, focus groups actually rejected some features that spelled the Edsel's doom, including the name, which group members thought "sounded too much like 'weasel.'" (9) Other features, such as the unpopular design of the car's body, were not subject to focus group research at all. (10) Overall, it may be that a truly unfortunate name is what actually contributed to the Edsel's failure. (11) Whether or not focus groups could have saved the Edsel, it is clear that they produced useful feedback. (12) Seen in this light, even the focus groups used by Herman Miller come off better: their reservations about the unusual chair design did correspond to low initial sales figures before the product became a hit. (13) As Eric L. Johnston argues, Gladwell criticizes focus groups for failing to predict the future, something that should not be expected of them. (14) "Ultimately, focus groups are just one component in a company's decision-making process, and they should never be treated as a magical elixir nor a substitute for sound business decisions," Johnston asserts. 5. In sentence 3 (reproduced below), the writer wants to introduce Malcolm Gladwell's perspective on focus groups in order to integrate this perspective into the writer's line of reasoning in the passage. The popular writer Malcolm Gladwell has provided a compelling introduction to the focus group, a research technique in which groups of consumers are asked detailed
questions about a new product. Which of the following versions of the underlined text would best accomplish this goal?

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