Bio Mid Term 1 Study Notes.docx

A competitive inhibition inhibitor and substrate both

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a. Competitive inhibition: inhibitor and substrate both compete for the active site of the enzyme. When the inhibitor binds to the active site, it blocks the substrate from binding to the enzyme, thus blocking production of a product. b. Non-Competitive inhibition: allosteric inhibitor binds to enzyme, converting it from a high-affinity state (strongly bonded to substrate) to a low-affinity state where the substrate is not bonded or weakly bonded to the enzyme. When there is too scarce of a product, a allosteric activiator is used to convert the enzyme from a low to high affinity state 10.In the stomach, the enzyme pepsin is quite prominent. Its optimal working conditions is in an acidic pH, 1.5 being most optimal, and at a temperature between 30 to 40 degrees Celsius. If the temperature and pH goes any higher or lower than this range, then the reaction rate will decrease or the enzyme
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will become denatured. This enzyme breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. Cell Membranes and Membrane Transport Selective permeability: a cell’s ability to only allow certain ions/molecules to pass through its membrane by diffusion Diffusion: movement of a substance from a high to low concentration o Simple Diffusion: movement of a ion/molecule across a membrane without the use of a protein o Facilitated diffusion: diffusion of a molecule or ion such as water through a membrane requiring a carrier protein Ions and large polar molecules require this method of diffusion Gradient: area in which the concentration of particles are spread out or in close proximity Channel Protein: protein that facilitates the diffusion of large polar molecules and ions that normally cannot pass through the membrane by simple diffusion by creating hydrophilic pathways. Carrier protein: binds to a single solute and carries it over the membrane Integral protein: proteins embedded in lipid bilayer Peripheral Protein: on the surface of the membrane, interacts with lipid/protein by noncovalent bonds Active transport: transport of a solute across a membrane against the concentration gradient; requires ATP Passive transport uniport: a carrier protein that is embedded in the lipid bilayer has a single solute at a time bind to it and carries the solute to the part of the membrane that is of lower concentration o Once the other side of the membrane becomes too saturated, the protein closes Symport: cotransported solute moves through membrane channel in the same direction as the driving ion Antiport: cotransport solute moves through membrane channel in opposite direction as driving ion Osmosis: movement of water from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration Hypotonic: solution where the concentration of solute is greater inside a membrane causing water to move inside the cell, causing cell to increase in size Hypertonic: solution where concentration of solute is greater outside a
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