2 attention o attention is determined by the

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2. Attention o Attention is determined by the individual, the stimulus and the situation. o Individual – customers are more likely to be aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs. o Stimulus – stimuli that differ from others around them are more likely to be noticed. Contrast can be created in: size and intensity, colour, position and isolation. o In perceiving a stimulus with a given set of characteristics, customers will also be influenced by the context of the stimulus, namely, the situation. 3. Interpretation o Individuals tend to interpret information according to their existing beliefs, attitudes and general disposition, and experiences, i.e. the subjective qualities and frame of reference we refer to earlier. o Selective interpretation may be due to: Mis-indexing – this refers to the way people tend to classify or categorise the meaning of the message. Distorting – either purposefully or subconsciously, customers distort the message to fit in with their likes, dislikes, prejudices and attitudes. 4. Memory / recall o Memory is selective. Marketers should be aware of the following factors that affect recall: The positive-sleeper effect – a customer may not be convinced by an advertising message, but may still react in the desired way – by buying the product. The boomerang effect – may result in customers reversing their decision to buy one product and taking the directly opposite course of action by buying another, competing product. Overcrowded file space – the marketing message should be as simple as possible, not to contribute to the confusion. Learning is the process by which individuals acquire the buying and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future-related behaviour. Elements of learning: 1. Stimulus – something that stimulates the learner’s interest. A person can be stimulated by physical objects or intangibles. 2. Response – any action, reaction or state of mind resulting from a particular stimulus or cue. 3. Reinforcement – increases the likelihood that a particular response will occur in the future as the result of specific cues or stimuli. 2 important aspects of reinforcement are repetition and participation. Learning theories are mechanisms for or ways in which learning takes place: 14
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1. Classical conditioning – process in which a person learns an association between two stimuli because of their constant appearance as a pair. (Pavlov’s dogs) 2. Instrumental conditioning – occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviours that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes. In instrumental conditioning, learning will take place if the consumer is conditioned to believe that a specific response to a stimulus will lead to a positive reward.
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