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Unformatted text preview: 2. Subjective – we interpret the stimuli according to our unique personalities, biases and needs. 3. Based on the individual’s frame of reference – the individual’s act of perceiving is based on his experience. 13 • The perceptual process consists of four stages: 1. Exposure o Exposure – the degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory receptors. o Most of the stimuli to which an individual is exposed are “self-selected”. 2. Attention o Attention is determined by the individual, the stimulus and the situation. o Individual – customers are more likely to be aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs. o Stimulus – stimuli that differ from others around them are more likely to be noticed. Contrast can be created in: size and intensity, colour, position and isolation. o In perceiving a stimulus with a given set of characteristics, customers will also be influenced by the context of the stimulus, namely, the situation. 3. Interpretation o Individuals tend to interpret information according to their existing beliefs, attitudes and general disposition, and experiences, i.e. the subjective qualities and frame of reference we refer to earlier. o Selective interpretation may be due to: Mis-indexing – this refers to the way people tend to classify or categorise the meaning of the message. Distorting – either purposefully or subconsciously, customers distort the message to fit in with their likes, dislikes, prejudices and attitudes. 4. Memory / recall o Memory is selective. Marketers should be aware of the following factors that affect recall: The positive-sleeper effect – a customer may not be convinced by an advertising message, but may still react in the desired way – by buying the product. The boomerang effect – may result in customers reversing their decision to buy one product and taking the directly opposite course of action by buying another, competing product. Overcrowded file space – the marketing message should be as simple as possible, not to contribute to the confusion. • Learning is the process by which individuals acquire the buying and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future-related behaviour. • Elements of learning: 1. Stimulus – something that stimulates the learner’s interest. A person can be stimulated by physical objects or intangibles. 2. Response – any action, reaction or state of mind resulting from a particular stimulus or cue. 3. Reinforcement – increases the likelihood that a particular response will occur in the future as the result of specific cues or stimuli. 2 important aspects of reinforcement are repetition and participation....
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- Winter '08
- Marketing, Study Unit, South African