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an optimal period for development of specific physical or cognitivecapabilitiesexposure to certain environmental stimuli or experiences influences developmentimpact can be positive or negative12.Teratogens (p. 63-66 & lecture). Any disease, drug, or other environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus. Effects of a teratogen depend when exposure occursNot all embryo/fetuses affected equallyHigher/longer the exposure, the greater damageDifferent teratogens may cause the same effectsThe same teratogen may cause different effects, depending on timing13.Drugs: alcohol, FAS (video), nicotine, cocaine, thalidomide. 14.Infectious diseases: rubella, syphilis (know specific effects at specific times), HIV.Environmental hazards: radiation (video). Folic acid (p. 67). Rubella: (German measles) is one disease that can cause prenatal defects. Women who plan to have children should have a blood test before they become pregnant to determine whether they are immune to the diseaseSyphilis: (a sexually transmitted infection) is more damaging later in prenatal development—four months or more after conception. When syphilis is
present at birth, problems can develop in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract; most damaging in middle to late stagesHIV: AIDS is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the body's immune system. A mothercan infect her offspring with HIV/AIDS in three ways: (1) across the placenta during gestation, (2) through contact with maternal blood or fluids during delivery, and (3) through breast feedingFolic acid: a B-complex vitamin. Also, as indicated earlier, lack of folic acid is related to neural tube defects in offspring 15.For teratogens & timing: lecture & see also Fig. 13, p 64). 17.Distinguish between low birth weight, preterm and small for date infants (p. 74).