For high quality design regulators the toroid core

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For high quality design regulators the toroid core seems to be the best choice. Since the magnetic flux is contained within the core, it generates less EMI, reducing noise problems in sensitive circuits. The least expensive is the bobbin core type, which consists of wire wound on a ferrite rod core. This type of inductor generates more EMI due to the fact that its core is open, and the magnetic flux is not contained within the core. When multiple switching regulators are located on the same printed circuit board, open core magnetics can cause
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LM2596 16 interference between two or more of the regulator circuits, especially at high currents due to mutual coupling. A toroid, pot core or E−core (closed magnetic structure) should be used in such applications. Do Not Operate an Inductor Beyond its Maximum Rated Current Exceeding an inductor’s maximum current rating may cause the inductor to overheat because of the copper wire losses, or the core may saturate. Core saturation occurs when the flux density is too high and consequently the cross sectional area of the core can no longer support additional lines of magnetic flux. This causes the permeability of the core to drop, the inductance value decreases rapidly and the inductor begins to look mainly resistive. It has only the DC resistance of the winding. This can cause the switch current to rise very rapidly and force the LM2596 internal switch into cycle−by−cycle current limit, thus reducing the DC output load current. This can also result in overheating of the inductor and/or the LM2596. Different inductor types have different saturation characteristics, and this should be kept in mind when selecting an inductor. 0.4 A 0 A 0.4 A 0 A Inductor Current Waveform Power Switch Current Waveform Figure 20. Discontinuous Mode Switching Current Waveforms VERTICAL RESOLUTION 200 mA/DIV HORIZONTAL TIME BASE: 2.0 ms/DIV GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS Output Voltage Ripple and Transients Source of the Output Ripple Since the LM2596 is a switch mode power supply regulator, its output voltage, if left unfiltered, will contain a sawtooth ripple voltage at the switching frequency. The output ripple voltage value ranges from 0.5% to 3% of the output voltage. It is caused mainly by the inductor sawtooth ripple current multiplied by the ESR of the output capacitor. Short Voltage Spikes and How to Reduce Them The regulator output voltage may also contain short voltage spikes at the peaks of the sawtooth waveform (see Figure 21). These voltage spikes are present because of the fast switching action of the output switch, and the parasitic inductance of the output filter capacitor. There are some other important factors such as wiring inductance, stray capacitance, as well as the scope probe used to evaluate these transients, all these contribute to the amplitude of these spikes. To minimize these voltage spikes, low inductance capacitors should be used, and their lead lengths must be kept short. The importance of quality printed circuit board layout design should also be highlighted.
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  • Fall '19
  • Switched-mode power supply, Vout, Vin

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