36 discuss the different forms of torpor and find an

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36. Discuss the different forms of torpor and find an example of a specific animal that experiences each kind. Chapter 42: 37. Distinguish between arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries. 38. Why is the four-chambered heart necessary to sustain high metabolic rates in mammals and birds? Describe hearts found in fish, amphibians and reptiles. 39. What is the function of valves in the heart and veins? 40. How are blood (hydrostatic) pressure and osmotic pressure involved in the transfer of materials out of and into the blood stream across the walls of capillaries? 41. Why is the lymphatic system critical to maintaining the volumes of blood plasma and interstitial fluid? What is its immune function?
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AP BIOLOGY 4 42. Trace the path of an O 2 molecule from the air into the blood stream. 43. Describe how a counter current exchange mechanism works in relation to oxygen pickup in the gills of a fish. 44. Explain how negative pressure breathing drives ventilation of mammalian lungs. 45. Transport of O 2 and CO 2 into and out of the bloodstream is achieved entirely via diffusion across membranes. Why is this possible? 46. How does hemoglobin’s affinity for O2 change in response to changes in plasma pH and temperature? Why is this critical for effective delivery of O 2 to metabolically active tissues? 47. Describe the links between the digestive, the circulatory, the respiratory systems? 48. Several changes occur within the body as a result of aerobic exercise that improve the body’s ability to perform work. Explain how each of these changes improve the body’s ability to produce ATP: a. Increase in ventricular volume b. Increase in elasticity and power of cardiac muscle c. Increase in blood volume d. Increase in capillary density in muscles e. Increase in number and size of mitochondria in muscle cells f. Increase in enzyme concentration in cytosol g. Increase in enzyme concentration in mitochondrial matrix h. Increase in RBC count i. Increase in concentration of muscle myoglobin Past Free Response Questions The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The following results were obtained. (a) How do (1) temperature and (2) pH affect the activity of this enzyme? In your answer, include a discussion of the relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme, as well as a discussion of how structure and function of enzymes are affected by temperature and pH. (b) Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH. Be sure toe state the hypothesis that was tested here. Enzymes are biological catalysts. (a) Relate the chemical structure of an enzyme to its specificity and catalytic activity. (b) Design a quantitative experiment to investigate the influence of pH or temperature on the activity of an enzyme.
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