Summary 31 4 documenting req document types of

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Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4 Documenting Requirements 33 4.1 Document Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.2 Types of Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.2.1 The Three Perspectives of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.2.2 Requirements Documentation using Natural Language . . . . 35 4.2.3 Requirements Documentation using Conceptual Models . . 35 4.2.4 Hybrid Requirements Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.3 Document Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.3.1 Standardized Document Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.3.2 Customized Standard Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.4 Using Requirements Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.5 Quality Criteria for Requirements Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.5.1 Unambiguity and Consistency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.5.2 Clear Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.5.3 Modifiability and Extendibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.5.4 Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.5.5 Traceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
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Contents xvii 4.6 Quality Criteria for Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.7 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 5 Documenting Requirements in Natural Language 49 5.1 Effects of Natural Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5.1.1 Nominalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5.1.2 Nouns without Reference Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.1.3 Universal Quantifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.1.4 Incompletely Specified Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5.1.5 Incompletely Specified Process Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.2 Requirement Construction using Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 6 Model-Based Requirements Documentation 59 6.1 The Term Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6.1.1 Properties of Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 6.1.2 Modeling Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 6.1.3 Requirements Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 6.1.4 Advantages of Requirements Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 6.1.5 Combined Use of Models and Natural Language . . . . . . . . . . . 62 6.2 Goal Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 6.2.1 Goal Documentation Using AND/OR Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6.2.2 Example of AND/OR Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6.3 Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6.3.1 UML Use Case Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6.3.2 Use Case Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 6.4 Three Perspectives on the Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
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xviii Contents 6.5 Requirements Modeling in the Data Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 6.5.1 Entity-Relationship Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 6.5.2 UML Class Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 6.6 Requirements Modeling in the Functional Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 6.6.1 Data Flow Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 6.6.2 Models of the Functional Perspective and Control Flow . . . . 78 6.6.3 UML Activity Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 6.7 Requirements Modeling in the Behavioral Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 6.7.1 Statecharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 6.7.2 UML State Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 6.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 7 Requirements Validation and Negotiation 89 7.1 Fundamentals of Requirements Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 7.2 Fundamentals of Requirements Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 7.3 Quality Aspects of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 7.3.1 Quality Aspect “Content” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 7.3.2 Quality Aspect “Documentation” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 7.3.3 Quality Aspect “Agreement” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 7.4 Principles of Requirements Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 7.4.1 Principle 1: Involvement of the Correct Stakeholders . . . . . . . 94 7.4.2 Principle 2: Separating the Identification and the Correction of Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 7.4.3 Principle 3: Validation from Different Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 7.4.4 Principle 4: Adequate Change of Documentation Type . . . . . 96 7.4.5 Principle 5: Construction of Development Artifacts . . . . . . . . 96 7.4.6 Principle 6: Repeated Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 7.5 Requirements Validation Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 7.5.1 Commenting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 7.5.2 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 7.5.3 Walk-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
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Contents xix 7.5.4 Perspective-Based Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 7.5.5 Validation through Prototypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 7.5.6 Using Checklists for Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7.6 Requirements Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 7.6.1 Conflict Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7.6.2 Conflict Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 7.6.3 Conflict Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 7.6.4 Documentation of the Conflict Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 8 Requirements Management 111 8.1 Assigning Attributes to Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 8.1.1 Attributes for Natural Language Requirements and Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 8.1.2 Attribute Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
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