i.The impact of the structure and culture of society is not the same for differentgroups of women and men.ii.Research should thus take into consideration the differential effects of age, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation.III.GENDER STRATIFICATION: STRUCTURAL SEXISMA.Structural sexism, or institutional sexism: the ways the organization of society and its institutions subordinate individuals and groups based on sex classification. B. Education and Structural Sexism1.Worldwide, women are less likely than men to be literate (read and write) due to millions of women being denied access to even the most basic education.a. 87 females attend elementary school for every 100 boys.2.In 2009, few differences existed between American men and women in their completion rates of high school and college degrees.3.Men are more likely to complete a graduate or professional degree than are women, and differences exist in the types of advanced degrees earned.4.Women may earn fewer advanced degrees than men due to socialization that encourages them to choose marriage and motherhood over long-term career preparation and structural limitations that discourage women from advancingin education. C. Work and Structural Sexism1.In 2008, women made up 40.4% of the world’s total labor force. 2.Women are disproportionately employed in agricultural and service sectors, more likely to be unemployed.3.Worldwide, women tend to work in jobs with little prestige, low or no pay, where no product is produced, and in roles where they are facilitators for others4.No matter what the job, if a woman does it, it is likely to be valued less than if a man does it. (e.g., clerks in the 1800s were 90% men and being a clerk was a prestigious position).5.Occupational sex segregation: the concentration of women in certain occupations andmen in other occupationsa.Women are overrepresented in semiskilled and unskilled occupations.b.Men are disproportionately concentrated in professional, administrative, and managerial positions.c.Men in traditionally held female jobs have an advantage in hiring, promotion, and salaries, called the glass escalator effect.d.Women are still heavily represented in low-prestige, low-wage, pink-collar jobs that offer few benefits.6. Reasons for occupational sex segregation:a.Cultural beliefs about what is an “appropriate” job for a woman or man.b.Opportunity structures differ by gender.i.Women and men are often channeled by employers into gender-specific jobs that carry different wages and promotion opportunities. ii.Women in higher paying jobs may be victimized by a “glass ceiling”—an often invisible barrier that prevents women and other minorities from movinginto top corporate positions.iii.Working mothers experience a “motherhood penalty” in which they are evaluated as less competent and committed to work than non-mothers and Chapter:10 3
feel pressured to choose professions that permit flexible hours and career paths.
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- The Feminine Mystique