What are two characteristics of a fixed action

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Chapter 20 / Exercise 04
Exploring Economics
Sexton
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What are two characteristics of a fixed action pattern (F.A.P.)?
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Chapter 20 / Exercise 04
Exploring Economics
Sexton
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Name/SID Kelp forests grow predominantly on the Pacific Coast, from Alaska and Canada to the waters off Baja California. Tiered like a terrestrial rainforest with a canopy and several layers below, the kelp forests along Central and Southern California are dominated by the giant kelp - Macrocystis pyrifera. Kelp forests grow along rocky coastlines in depths of about 2 m to more than 30 m. Which general marine biome would best characterize where kelp forests are found? (2)
Giant kelp is a perennial (i.e. it lives for several years) and has a two-stage life cycle. They start as spores, released by the millions from the parent kelp known as a sporophyte. A very small number of spores grow into a tiny male or female plant called a gametophyte, which produces either sperm or eggs. After fertilization occurs, the embryos may grow into mature plants (sporophytes), completing the life cycle. What type of survivorship curve would best characterize giant kelp plants (2) type III survivorship curveKelp forests provide critical habitat to a number of organisms. In addition to kelp, a variety of other algal species can be found growing underneath the kelp canopy. Herbivores such as urchins and abalones consume this algae and a number of predators including sheephead fish, octopus, and of course sea otters can be found in this system as well. The figure on the right depicts a simplified food web for a typical kelp forest. Is this an example of a grazing or decomposing food web? (2)
What is the trophic status of the following: (3)
Both sheephead and otters consume urchins in this food web. Which of the two would you expect to show a higher production efficiency and why? (2)
As stated above, sea otters are active predators on urchins. In the space below sketch all the interactions that occur between otters, urchins and kelp. Indicate direct interactions with solid lines and indirect interactions with dashed lines and be sure to indicate what the fitness consequences (+,-,0) are to each organism involved in the interaction. (3)

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