Push before her cervix is completely dilated and

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push before her cervix is completely dilated and effaced, she can end up notonly bruising her cervix but also slowing down progression of her labor.Stage 2: Delivery of the BabyStage 2 typically only lasts for about 50 minutes for first-time mothers and20 minutes for later births. It is during this stage that the infant is born. Thecontractions during the second stage of the birth process stretch the skinsurrounding the birth canal and move the baby through the birth canal. Witheach contraction that the mother feels, she pushes the baby down and outof the birth canal. It is during the crowning process that the baby’s head willemerge from the birth canal. Once crowning has occurred, the rest of theinfant can emerge from the mother’s body within a few minutes.Figure 3.2: Effacement and dilation of the cervix duringstage 1 of laborDuring this first, longest stage of labor, the cervix becomes fully dilatedand effaced after 12 to 14 hours for most first-time mothers.Did You Know:EpisiotomyThe episiotomy is a controversial procedure and it is not typically
A physician may perform an episiotomy, or surgical incision at the openingof the vagina, during the crowning stage. The purpose is to prevent tearingbetween the vagina and the anus as a result of the stretching that occurs.Women are unlikely to feel the incision because the pressure of thecrowning tends to numb the region between the vagina and the anus.To clear the passageway for breathing from any obstructions, mucus issuctioned from the baby’s mouth when the head emerges from the birthcanal. Once the baby is breathing adequately, the umbilical cord is clampedand severed.Stage 3: Delivery of the PlacentaStage 3 is the shortest of all of the stages in the birth process and only lasts5 to 10 minutes. It is during this last stage that, with a few finalcontractions, the placenta detaches from the uterine wall, and the mothercan then push out and deliver the placenta. It is also during this time that aphysician will suture the episiotomy, if one was performed.Approaches to ChildbirthChildbirth practices are usually modeled by the society of the mother andchild. In Western nations, childbirth has changed dramatically over thecenturies. In the late 1800s, birth typically took place at home and was afamily-centered occasion. However, the industrial revolution brought manymore people to the cities, which in turn created new health problems. As aresult, childbirth moved from the home into hospitals, where the health ofthe mother and the baby could be protected. Once doctors began to assumeresponsibility for the health and well-being of both the mother and the child,friends and relatives no longer participated in the birthing event (Borst,1995).

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Term
Fall
Professor
BrianneFriberg

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