Bowel gangrene because of reduced blood flow Allergic reactions Injecting Increased risk for HIV/AIDS o Binge patterned use= irritability, restlessness, anxiety o Abusers can experience paranoia/psychosis (lose touch with reality and experience hallucinations) o Cocaine + alcohol compounds effects of cocaine by producing coaethylene (has longer half life- stays in body longer, than cocaine; intensifies cocaine’s euphoria, greater risk of sudden death) Nicotine use disorder o Nicotine Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in CNS, resulting in feelings of relaxation, wellness, pleasure Highly addictive o Relapse rates= those of alcohol/heroin
o Users dose themselves to maintain steady state of nicotine o Smoking has complex relationship to negative affect Improves mood short-term Depression occurs more in those with dependence o Withdrawal After using nicotine daily for at least several weeks, has at least 4 of these symptoms: dysphoric or depressed mood; insomnia; irritability/frustration/anger; anxiety; difficulty concentrating; restlessness; decreased heart rate Caffeine use disorder o Caffeine “the gentle stimulant” Used by over 90% of Americans Tea, coffee, cola drinks, cocoa products Small doses= elevate mood, reduce fatigue Regular use can result in tolerance/dependence Blocks reuptake of adenosine neurotransmitter o Consumption of caffeine, usually over 250mg (>2-3 cups) o Symptoms cause significant distress/impairment Restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, diuresis, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, rambling flow of thought/speech, tachycardia/cardiac arrhythmia, periods of inexhaustibility, psychomotor agitation Opiates : produce analgesia and euphoria Opioids (analgesics): natural and synthetic substances with narcotic effects o Opiate: natural chemical in opium poppy with narcotic effects o Synthetic variations (heroin, oxycodone, etc.) Effects o Activates endorphins o Low doses= euphoria, drowsiness, slowed breathing o High doses can result in death o Withdrawal effects lasting and severe Mortality rates high for opioid addicts (reduces respiration, causes suffocation) Hallucinogens : alter sensory perception, changes way user sees world May produce delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, altered sensory perception Marijuana o Active chemical= tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) o Symptoms= mood swings, paranoia, hallucinations o Impairment in motivation o Withdrawal/dependence are uncommon o Tolerance and reverse tolerance (regular users experience more pleasure after repeated use) are reported; no cravings LSD/acid o Most common form of hallucinogen o Tolerance rapid, withdrawal symptoms uncommon
o Can produce psychotic delusions/hallucinations o Made in lab, but substance ergot found in grains produces similar effect o Some stories of danger of LSD, but no evidence that it is more dangerous than alcohol o “Bad trip” individuals can be calmed through reassurances Other drugs of abuse Inhalants o Substances found in volatile solvents o Breathed directly into lungs, rapidly absorbed o Spray paint, hair spray, paint thinner, gasoline, nitrous oxide
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- Fall '11
- Abnormal Psychology, Exam 2, Study Guide, Major depressive disorder, Major Depressive Episode, Sexual arousal