Bowel gangrene because of reduced blood flow Allergic reactions Injecting

Bowel gangrene because of reduced blood flow allergic

This preview shows page 27 - 30 out of 31 pages.

Bowel gangrene because of reduced blood flow Allergic reactions Injecting Increased risk for HIV/AIDS o Binge patterned use= irritability, restlessness, anxiety o Abusers can experience paranoia/psychosis (lose touch with reality and experience hallucinations) o Cocaine + alcohol compounds effects of cocaine by producing coaethylene (has longer half life- stays in body longer, than cocaine; intensifies cocaine’s euphoria, greater risk of sudden death) Nicotine use disorder o Nicotine Stimulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in CNS, resulting in feelings of relaxation, wellness, pleasure Highly addictive o Relapse rates= those of alcohol/heroin
Image of page 27
o Users dose themselves to maintain steady state of nicotine o Smoking has complex relationship to negative affect Improves mood short-term Depression occurs more in those with dependence o Withdrawal After using nicotine daily for at least several weeks, has at least 4 of these symptoms: dysphoric or depressed mood; insomnia; irritability/frustration/anger; anxiety; difficulty concentrating; restlessness; decreased heart rate Caffeine use disorder o Caffeine “the gentle stimulant” Used by over 90% of Americans Tea, coffee, cola drinks, cocoa products Small doses= elevate mood, reduce fatigue Regular use can result in tolerance/dependence Blocks reuptake of adenosine neurotransmitter o Consumption of caffeine, usually over 250mg (>2-3 cups) o Symptoms cause significant distress/impairment Restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, diuresis, gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, rambling flow of thought/speech, tachycardia/cardiac arrhythmia, periods of inexhaustibility, psychomotor agitation Opiates : produce analgesia and euphoria Opioids (analgesics): natural and synthetic substances with narcotic effects o Opiate: natural chemical in opium poppy with narcotic effects o Synthetic variations (heroin, oxycodone, etc.) Effects o Activates endorphins o Low doses= euphoria, drowsiness, slowed breathing o High doses can result in death o Withdrawal effects lasting and severe Mortality rates high for opioid addicts (reduces respiration, causes suffocation) Hallucinogens : alter sensory perception, changes way user sees world May produce delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, altered sensory perception Marijuana o Active chemical= tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) o Symptoms= mood swings, paranoia, hallucinations o Impairment in motivation o Withdrawal/dependence are uncommon o Tolerance and reverse tolerance (regular users experience more pleasure after repeated use) are reported; no cravings LSD/acid o Most common form of hallucinogen o Tolerance rapid, withdrawal symptoms uncommon
Image of page 28
o Can produce psychotic delusions/hallucinations o Made in lab, but substance ergot found in grains produces similar effect o Some stories of danger of LSD, but no evidence that it is more dangerous than alcohol o “Bad trip” individuals can be calmed through reassurances Other drugs of abuse Inhalants o Substances found in volatile solvents o Breathed directly into lungs, rapidly absorbed o Spray paint, hair spray, paint thinner, gasoline, nitrous oxide
Image of page 29
Image of page 30

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 31 pages?

  • Fall '11
  • GaleNquin
  • Abnormal Psychology, Exam 2, Study Guide, Major depressive disorder, Major Depressive Episode, Sexual arousal

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes