E environmental regulations related to trade 1 epa is

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(e) Environmental regulations related to trade 1. EPA is responsible for ensuring compliance with environmental regulations in the United States. 138 EPA's role in international trade is to ensure that trade agreements are negotiated and implemented to protect domestic interests and environmental standards. Within its Import-Export Program (IEP), EPA works with regional and programme offices, the states, other federal agencies, and foreign governments to ensure compliance with and the development of laws governing the importation and exportation of materials that may pose a risk to human health and the environment, including hazardous waste, toxic chemicals 139 , pesticides, and ozone-depleting substances. 2. Regarding trade in hazardous waste, the United States has agreements with several countries that provide for prior notification of shipment of wastes (both importing and exporting). The United States has not ratified the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal. 140 The United States adheres to the OECD Council Decision governing trade in recyclable waste with other OECD countries; accordingly, exports of waste have to be notified by the exporter to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which informs the importing country. 3. Many of the U.S. notifications to the WTO TBT and SPS Committees described above were submitted by the EPA and concerned pesticides, chemical content, and labelling guidelines. EPA sets limits on the amount of pesticides that may remain in/on food; the FDA is then in charge of enforcing them. Tolerances notices are published in the Federal Register and notified to WTO. EPA is constantly updating its list of authorized pesticides and tolerances limits; these can be consulted in the Code of Federal Regulations. 141 4. The United States in some instances applies trade measures to enforce U.S. environmental provisions, notably those governing the use of marine resources. The enforcement of these environmental regulations is the task of two U.S. agencies: the Bureau of Oceans and International 135 National Academies' National Research Council (2003). 136 Previously, APHIS' biotechnology programmes were divided between APHIS' Plant Protection and Quarantine and Veterinary Services programmes. 137 Subsequently, the United States alleged violation of Articles I, III, X, and XI of GATT 94, Article 4 of the Agreement on Agriculture, and Articles 2 and 5 of the TBT Agreement (WT/DS291 series). 138 EPA information is available online at http://www.epa.gov. 139 The Toxic Substances Control Act § 12(b) and 40 CFR Part 707 requires EPA to notify importing countries of the export of chemicals or mixtures that are subject to certain rules and orders. Approximately 1,100 chemicals come under this requirement.
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