135 trace the pathway of a red blood cell through the

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135) Trace the pathway of a red blood cell through the kidney from the renal artery to the renal vein. Answer: Red blood cells are not filtered by the glomerulus since they are too large to pass through the filtration membrane. Instead, red blood cells travel through the renal artery, segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, cortical radiate artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, and on to the efferent arteriole. Then, the red blood cell continues its travels to the peritubular capillaries and exits the kidney via the cortical radiate vein, arcuate vein, interlobar vein, and the renal vein. 136) Compare and contrast filtrate from blood plasma. Answer: Filtrate and blood plasma both contain water and solutes. Filtrate is essentially blood plasma without the blood proteins. However, filtrate differs from blood plasma since blood proteins are too large to fit through the filtration membrane of the glomerulus. 28
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137) Explain the renin - angiotensin mechanism. Answer: The renin - angiotensin mechanism is the most important trigger for the release of aldosterone. It is mediated by the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus of the renal tubules. The JG apparatus consists of modified smooth muscle cells that are stimulated by low blood pressure within the afferent arteriole or changes in solute content of the filtrate. The JG cells respond to these changes by releasing renin into the blood. Renin catalyzes reactions that lead to angiotensin II production, which then acts directly on the blood vessels to cause vasoconstriction as well as aldosterone release. Aldosterone then causes the reabsorption of sodium and water, leading to increased blood volume and blood pressure. 138) Describe how the bicarbonate buffer system functions to maintain pH. Answer: The bicarbonate buffer system utilizes carbonic acid and its salt, sodium bicarbonate. When blood is too acidic, the bicarbonate ions of the salt act as a base and tie up more hydrogen ions. Thus, more carbonic acid is formed. A strong acid is changed to a weak acid which has less of an effect on pH. Under alkaline conditions, carbonic acid releases more hydrogen ions to bind with the hydroxide ions released by the strong base. A strong base is changed to a weak base which has less of an effect on pH. 29
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Answer Key Testname: UNTITLED11 30
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Answer Key Testname: UNTITLED11 31
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Answer Key Testname: UNTITLED11 133) Tubular reabsorption is the process by which the body reclaims substances within the filtrate that it wants to keep.
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