The invariant of translation the contents of the

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(the “invariant” of translation) the contents of the original text, its sense , its functional value, its meaning , and its information structure normative view
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(4) Komissarov’s (1973) view on equivalence argues against a normative view (researcher has to refrain from any evaluative or critical comments) he does not intend to describe the criteria for creating equivalence; instead he sets out to explore and systematise the equivalence relations observed in translations (based on the Russian translation of English texts)
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Komissarov’s five levels of transfer correspond to five different levels of equivalence: (1) equivalence on the level of the communicative goal (=the lowest degree of semantic similarity with the original text) (2) equivalence on the level of (the identification) of the situation (=higher degree of similarity, even though it is not so evident at first sight) (3) equivalence on the level of message / of method of description (of the situation) (=higher degree of similarity: it is not only the communicative goal and the situation that are identical, but also the way in which the situation is described) (4) equivalence on the level of utterance /of syntactic meanings (=besides the communicative goal, the situation described, and the manner of describing the situation, the grammatical structures are also partly identical, i.e. their differences are only due to the differences between the systems of the two languages. (5) equivalence on the level of linguistic signs / of word semantics (=the maximum possible similarity
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(5) Klaudy (2003): The conditions of communicative equivalence 3 types of equivalence relations characterise a communicatively equivalent translation : referential equivalence: the TL text should refer to the same segment of reality, to the same facts, events and phenomena as the SL text contextual equivalence: individual sentences should occupy the same position in the whole of the TL text as their correspondents in the whole of the SL text functional equivalence: the TL text should play the same role in the community of TL readers as the SL text in the community of SL readers (this role may involve transfer of information, provoking certain emotions, appeal, etc.)
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(6) Baker’s (1992) typology of equivalences word level above word level grammatical textual 1: thematic and information structures textual 2: cohesion pragmatic
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Textual equivalence: cohesion Halliday and Hasan: continuum of cohesive elements: repetition, synonym, superordinate, general words, pronominal reference
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Reference = the relationship of identity which holds between two linguistic expressions (textual reference, situational reference; co-reference also) differs across discourse types and languages English: relies heavily on pronominal reference Hebrew: uses proper names to trace participants through a discourse Brazil: refer to participant by using a noun several times in succession before shifting into a pronominal form Brazilian Portuguese: prefers lexical repetition (+
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