iii. Amon the Semai agriculturalists of central Malaya, when one person refuses the request of another, the offended party suffers punan. The Semai are afraid of violence.iv.The Iroquois of North America and the Lovedu of Africa came closest to being societies in which women control all strategic resources, but in both men owned the land and help positions of power and prestige. Women were equal, and neither were true matriarchies.1.Iroquois women raised food, controlled its distribution, and helped to chose male political leaders.2.Lovedu women ruled as queens, exchanged valuable cattle, led ceremonies, and controlled their own sex lives.v.Suggested reasons why women do not hunt:1.Variability in the supply of game2.The different skills required for hunting and gathering3.The incompatibility between carrying burdens and hunting4.The small size of seminomadic foraging populations
ANTH 1003C&C Notes – Test 34/8/08vi.Four types of hunter-gatherer societies, with the extent of male dominance increasing directly with the proportion of meat supplied by men:1.Those in which men and women work together in communal hunts and as teams gathering edible plantsa.EX: the Washo Indians (Equality based on cooperation)2.Those in which men and women each collect their own plant foods although the men supply some meat to the groupa.EX: the Hadza of Tanzania (Equality based on independence)3.Those in which male hunters and female gatherers work apart but return to camp each evening to share their acquisitionsa.EX: the Tiwi of North Australia4.Those in which the men provide all the food by hunting large gamea.EX: the Eskimo.7.Chapter 22: A Woman’s Curse?a.By Meredith F. Smalli.Strassmann studied the ways men and women have evolved to accomplish and regulate reproduction, focusing on the important role played by biology. She studied the Dogon in West Africa. Men visiting the hunt are channeling parental resources into the upbringing of their own children.ii.For the Dogon, a menstruating woman is a threat to the sanctity of religious altars.iii. Information about menstruation can be a means of tracking paternity1.By informing of intercourse timing2.By informing menstruation timing
ANTH 1003C&C Notes – Test 34/8/08iv.Strassmann found the taboo is established by men, backed by supernatural forces, and internalized and accepted by women until the men release them from the belief.v.She says that if there is adaptive value to menstruation, it is ultimately a strategy to conserve the body’s resources.