Born a merchant class but he wanted to eliminate

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Born a merchant class, BUT he wanted to eliminate injustices of caste system - Fought for better rights for the Untouchables (harijans “children of God”) - Gandhi launched two great movements o Noncooperation Movement 1920-1922 o Civil Disobedience Movement 1930 - Lead Indians to boycott British institutions (schools, offices, courts) - Boycott British goods wear original spun cotton clothing Salt March (aka Salt Satyagraha) - Sparked large acts of civil protest against British rule City of Amritsar 1919 - Colonial troops fired into crowd killing 379 people The India Act 1937 - Gave India the institutions for a self-governing state - Autonomous legislative bodies - Bicameral national legislature - Executive arm under British control - Gandhi and majority of people approved - Ineffective because princes of India refused (Muslims feared Hindus would dominate national legislature Muslims already faced economic control by Hindus) o During the Great Depression; Muslims majority were farmers and they could not pay rent and ended up in debt economically exploited by Hindus
Muhammad Ali Jinnah - lawyer - Lead Muslim League (nationalist organization founded in 1906 focused on needs of Indian Muslims) - Unified India = threat to Muslim faith and Indian Community - “land of the pure” (aka Pakistan) - Brought out reality of hostility between Hindus and Muslims China’s Search for Order - Xuantong emperor and Qing empire fell - Sun Yat Sen became first provisional president of new Chinese republic 1912 The Republic - Warlords from old imperial Chinese army became provincial rulers - Revival from opium trade - Neglected irrigation projects - Unequal treaties from 19 th century impaired China’s sovereignty Chinese Nationalism - Young and intellectuals reached for restoration of sovereignty - Peacemakers approved Japanese intervention - May Fourth Movement (urban area led by students and intellectuals protested against foreign interference) - Shanfei rid China of imperialism and reestablish national unity Chinese Communist Party 1921, Shanghai - Anti-imperialist rhetoric & Soviet leadership prompted party - Mao Zedong (teacher & librarian deemed Marxist-inspired social revolution would heal China Sun Yat-sen - Elimination of special privileges for foreigners, national reunification, economic development, and democratic republican government based on universal suffrage - Leader of Nationalist People’s Party (aka Guomindang) - Soviet Union helped both the Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party to adapt a new political system Civil War - Sun Yat-sen died Jiang Jieshi (aka Chiang Kai-shek) became leader of Guomindang o Young general who trained in Japan & in Soviet Union o Created Northern Expedition (political and military offense) aimed to unify nation and bring China under Guomindang rule o 1921 broke alliance between Guomindang and Chinese Communist Party bloody end
- Nationalists formed central government with Guomindang in Nanjing, Beijing - Communist group moved to a southeastern region to reorganize their forces - China avoided the Great Depression 3 Major Problems during 1930s

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