Asthma involves periodic episodes of severe but

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Asthma Involves periodic episodes of severe but reversible bronchial obstruction in  persons with hypersensitive or hyperresponsive airways May occur in childhood or have an adult onset There’s often a family history or allergic conditions Extrinsic Asthma:  triggered by type 1 hypersensitivity reactions Intrinsic Asthma:  Onset during adulthood where a hyperresponsive tissue in the  airway starts the attack Stimuli’s of intrinsic asthma: respiratory infections, stress, exposure to cold,  inhalation of irritants, exercise, and drugs Pathologic changes of the bronchi and bronchioles Inflammation of the mucosa with edema  Bronchioconstriction- due to the contraction of the smooth muscle Increased secretion of think mucous in the airways Signs & Symptoms:  Changes will create obstructed airways, partially or totally Cough, marked dyspnea, tight feeling in the chest Wheezing, rapid and labored breathing Thick or sticky mucus, tachycardia, hypoxia Respiratory alkalosis     : initially due to hyperventilation Respiratory acidosis     : due to later air trapping Severe respiratory distress     - hypoventilation leads to hypoxemia and  respiratory acidosis Respiratory failure     - decreased response, cyanosis Status Asthmaticus : persistent severe attack of asthma; does not respond to usual  therapy, medical emergency is needed, and may be fatal due to severe hypoxia  and acidosis Asthma Treatment General measures :  skin tests for allergies to avoid triggers, good ventilation of 
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environment, swimming, walking, and use maintenance inhalers/drugs Measures for acute attacks :  controlled breathing techniques, bronchodilators and  glucocorticoids Prophylaxis and treatment for chronic asthma : leukotriene receptor antagonists  and cromolyn sodium Emphysema- causes the alveoli to deflate (no longer cluster it joins them together and the areas disintegrate) and decreases the oxygen carbon dioxide areas which causes hypoxia- you can see this on- this is a slow thing except in clients that have a genetic defect (Causes it to speed up) Symptoms: barrel chest because of air trapping and increased residual volume COPD: Emphysema Destruction of alveolar walls and septae- leads to large, permanently  inflated alveolar air spaces Classified by specific location of changes Contributing factors : genetic deficiency and tendency such as smoking and  organisms Breakdown of alveolar wall results in:  loss of surface areas and capillaries for gas  exchange, altered ventilation Fibrosis Narrowed airways Weakened Walls Interference with passive expiratory airflow Progressive difficulties with expiration Air trapping and increased residual volume Overinflation of the lungs
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