embryonic stem cells. These primitive cells derived from a 5 day embryo that are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture. Embryonic cells are also known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers. Another breakthrough was made, in 2006, where researchers identified conditions that would allow some specialized adult cells to be “reprogrammed” genetically to assume a stem cell like state. Pluripotent stem cells would be the name of this new type of stem cell. Adult stem cells or somatic stem cells are defined as the rare undifferentiated cell found in
many organs and differentiated tissues with a limited capacity for both self-renewal and differentiation[Nat18]. The human umbilical cord tissue, bone marrow, cord blood, and adipose tissue are sources of stem cells [Nei17]. Currently, human stem cells are being used to test new drugs. New medications are also tested on differentiated cells generated from human pluripotent cell lines. Cancer cell lines are used to screen potential anti-tumor drugs. However, some cell types and tissues fall short of being able to mimic these conditions precisely to generate pure populations of differentiated cells for each drug being tested [Nat18].
Works CitedNational Institutes of Health. (2018, June 12). Stem Cell Information. Retrieved from National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Neil H. Riordan, P. P. (2017). Stem Cell Institute. Retrieved from Cell Medicine: https://