To date vietnam is the only nation of indochina that

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of Latin alphabet. To date, Vietnam is the only nation of Indochina that uses the Latin alphabet to write the national languages. In 1930, when Ho Chi Minh established the Indochinese Communist Party, Vietnam started on the road to communism, and the in fl uence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was considerable. Large numbers of Vietnamese people went to the USSR to study, and new administrative systems, economic structures, and planning models based on examples in the USSR were introduced. The cultural life of the Vietnamese was in fl uenced by government-controlled media Environmental Adaptation by Small and Medium Sized Textile 89
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and the cultural in fl uences of socialist programs from communist nations such as the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and others (Jamieson 1993 ). Following the reuni fi cation in 1975, Vietnam entered a new period a period of evolution with many challenges. The aftermath of war, social evils, the mass fl ow of refugees, , the dispute at the northern border, the isolation and embargo from the United States and Western countries, plus continual natural calamities put Vietnam under tremendous tough challenges (Hieu 2010, p. 6). The country was devastated. Then, the government started its socialist practice and followed Soviet-style ‘‘ development-at-all-costs ’’ economic policy, favoring heavy industry and com- merce. However, this policy only focused on meeting production targets. Environ- mental considerations were not included in production and development decisions. Resource inputs, such as water, were considered to be free, resulting in the inef fi cient use of natural resources. Factories used old technologies, many of which were pro- vided by Russia and China from the 1950s and 1960s. Technical assistance was also provided. Pollution and other environmental impacts of industry were very high, resulting in serious environmental problems such as deforestation, soil erosion, contaminated water sources, and reduced wildlife habitat (Sikor and O Rourke 1996 ). In 1986, the government launched a renovation program (known as Đ i M i ), 1 transforming into a market-oriented economy and stepping into the process of globalization. Apart from the aim of generating economic growth, environmental protection and sustainable development have become important parts of the reform. In 1993, the government promulgated a Law on Environmental Protection 2 for the fi rst time. Subsequently, a series of decrees, directives, and circulars were issued to implement the law, such as Decree No. 175-CP dated 18th October, 1994; Decree No. 26-CP dated 26th April, 1996; and Directive No. 36-CT/TW dated 25th June, 1998. The government also encouraged the development of environmentally friendly industries as economic substitutes for natural resource exploitation. 2.2 Industrialization and the Challenges of Environmental Management Under the post-1986 economic reform, Vietnam has begun to achieve concrete results, including sustaining an economic growth rate of 8 9 %. Industrial activities are the main contributor to this. At the 8th Vietnamese Communist Party s congress
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