In the weaving process, electromagnetically functionalized yarns can be directly woven. The common yarns can be interlaced into fabrics with the electromagnetically functionalized yarns. For the fiber or the yarn that has been formed and does not have electromagnetic function, the surface of it may be coated with a metal coating or magnetic powder by electroless plating, electroplating, magnetron sputtering, or other ways . For ordinary fabrics without electromagnet properties, the surface can be treated by finishing, such as the electroplating, electroless plating, or embroidery to make it electromagnetic.
Application of the EM functional textiles 1. Antistatic textile materials In order to prepare relatively durable antistatic fiber, the methods are following: (1) Adding the surfactant to a fiber-forming polymer during blend spinning; (2) adding the hydrophilic group by block copolymerization; and (3) adding the hydrophilic group by graft modification in a fiber-forming polymer. These can make the fibers obtain durable hygroscopicity and antistatic properties. In addition, there are also another methods, including fixing the surfactant to the surface of the fiber with a binder and crosslinking the surfactant on the surface of the fiber to form a film. The effect is similar to applying an antistatic varnish onto the surface of the plastic. The resistivity of conventional textile materials is up to 10 10 Ω cm or more, and the generated charge is not easily dissipated, resulting in very serious electrostatic phenomenon . Therefore, the antistatic properties of textile materials have become an important property having a great influence on the processing of textile materials and the use of textiles.
2. Electromagnetic shielding textile materials Electromagnetic shielding is a technical measure to prevent or suppress the transmission of electromagnetic energy by using a shield. The shield used can weaken the electromagnetic field strength generated by the field source in the electromagnetic space protection zone. There are two main purposes for shielding: one is to limit the field source electromagnetic energy leaking out from the area that needs protection and the other is to prevent the external electromagnetic field energy entering into the area protected. In combination with the mesh structure of the electromagnetic shielding fabric, the key factors affecting the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness SE are the structural parameters and material parameters of fabric. Some key parameters are as following: the periodic spacing of metal yarns, the conductivity of the yarns (decided by the type of yarns, the type of metal fibers, the content of metal fibers), the diameters of the yarns, the arrangement method, the connection of intersections, the direction of incidence of electromagnetic field, and the frequency.