Formed once established continues to 40 channel hot

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formed, once established, continues to (40) channel hot material from the mantle base until the reservoir is emptied. The surface mark of an established plume is a hot spot—an isolated region of volcanoes and uplifted terrain (45) located far from the edge of a surface plate. Because the source of a hot spot remains fixed while a surface plate moves over it, over a long period of time an active plume creates a chain (50) of volcanoes or volcanic islands, a track marking the position of the plume relative to the moving plate. The natural history of the Hawaiian island chain 11
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clearly shows the movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed plume. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q22: The passage is primarily concerned with discussing A. the composition of Earth’s mantle B. how the Hawaiian Islands were created C. what causes Earth’s surface plates to move D. two different mechanisms by which volcanoes are formed E. why most volcanoes occur at plate boundaries Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q23: It can be inferred from the passage that a chain of volcanoes created by a mantle plume would most likely be characterized by -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q24: The author’s reference to the Hawaiian Islands serves primarily to A. provide an example of a type of volcanic activity that does not occur elsewhere B. identify the evidence initially used to establish that the Pacific plate moves C. call into question a theory about the source of the volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Islands D. illustrate the distance from plate edges at which volcanoes typically appear E. provide an example of how mantle plumes manifest themselves on Earth’s surface Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q25: According to the passage, a hot spot on Earth’s surface is an indication of which of the following? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12
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Q26: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.
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