Read more bedtime stories to a child who is

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read more bedtime stories to a child who is interested in the stories than to one who is uninterested Active effects Active effects of the genotype involve children’s choosing environments that they enjoy Example: a high school student who loves reading will read a greater deal, regardless of whether he or she was read to when young The evocative and active effects of the genotype help to explain how children’s IQ scores become more closely related over time to those of their biological parents, even if the children are adopted and never see their biological parents Influence of the immediate environment The influence of nurture on the development of intelligence begins with a child’s immediate environment of family and school family influences o testing the influence of the family environment on children’s intelligence requires some means of assessing the environment o how can something as complex and multifaceted as family environment be measured, especially when it differs for different children in the same family? Bradley and Cadwell tackled this problem by devising a measure known as HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) The HOME samples various aspects of children’s home life, including organization and safety of a living space, intellectual stimulation offered by parents, whether children have their own books, amount of parent-child interaction, parent’s emotional support of the child, etc. Throughout childhood, children’s IQ scores, as well as hier math and reading achievement scores are positively correlated with scores on the HOME
When HOME scores are relatively stable over time, IQ scores tend to be stable When HOME scores change, IQ scores also tend to change in the same direction Assessing varied aspects of a child’s family environment allows prediction of the child’s IQ o Unknown whether better-quality home environments CAUSE children to have high IQ Although scores on the HOME correlate with children’s IQ scores, whether causal relations exist between the two remain uncertain o Shared and non-shared family environments Each child within a given family encounters unique, non-shared environments The influence of the non-shared environment increases with age , and the influence of the shared environment decreases with age as children become increasingly able to choose their own friends and activities The relative influence of shared environments and genetic varies with family income Among children in low-income families in the US, the shared environment accounts for more variance in IQ scores and academic achievement than genetics does Among high-income families in the US, the relative influence of shared environment and genetics is reversed Influences of schooling o Attending school makes children smarter o Study: Examined IQ scores of older and younger Israeli children in 4 th -6 th grade Older children within each grade did better than younger children within that grade on each part of the test

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