: intended to influence the opinion or behaviors of an audience • Speech of conviction : the speaker is attempting to encourage the listener to believe as the speaker does • Speech of actuation : should move the members of the audience to take the desired action that the speaker has proposed (e.g. buy the product! Go on strike! Adopt this plan!)
Theory of field-related standards : not all people reach conclusions in the same way and thus may react differently to the same evidence or psychological material Group norm standards : the general thinking of a particular group—may be used as a guide for developing your arguments Individual norm standards: being on the side of a person with power or getting backed up by them may be a strong tool to influence people to side with your stand • Critical thinking : establish criteria and then match the solutions with the criteria • Comparative-advantage reasoning : begin by stating possible solutions, then demonstrate how the proposal is the most workable, desirable, and practical The Elaboration Likelihood Model: theorizes that if the issue being discussed is on that the listener has encountered before, is interested and involved in, and enjoys thinking about it, he or she is more likely to engage in paying attention to and maybe processing the persuader’s arguments Repeated exposure to messages : to persuade, systematically and repeatedly expose listeners to a message with objective of enhancing retention Psychological appeal : enlist listeners’ emotions as motivation for accepting your arguments Ethos : speaker credibility (reputation, prestige, and authority of speaker) • Three C’s: competence, charisma, character Logos : logical arguments • proposition of facts • proposition of value • proposition policy : most commonly used persuasive method, centers on stating that something should or shouldn’t be done • inductive argument: based on probability. Conclusion is believed from evidence. • deductive arguments: based on logical necessity. Starts general then leads to specific instances • generalization conclusion: number of specific instances are examined draw a conclusion • hypothesis conclusion: hypothesis is used to explain all the evidence • reasoning fallacies: logical flaws • Pathos : psychological appeals • persuasive speakers can use basic needs as a guide to organizing emotional appeals to trigger need satisfaction. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs: • a speaker must determine the level of need of a particular group of listeners and then select appeals aimed at that level • Physiological well-being, safety, acceptance, esteem, self-actualization Ethnographic Theory of Human Drives: another attempt to explain human needs, says that survival of the species , pleasure seeking , security , and territoriality must be satisfied Monroe’s Motivated Sequence: an alternative persuasive structure; describes the sequence by which a listener is taken through a five-step persuasive message
1. Attention (intro) 2. need (problem) 3.
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- Spring '08