According to Freud, psychological symptoms arise from unconscious or repressed memories. Unresolved issues need to be addressed and settledAge trends in moral judgementoInfancy & toddlerhoodChildren lies as soon as they can talk – not skilled at lying2 year olds deceive othersoEarly childhood3 year olds view lying as wrong, don't fully understand what a lie is4 year olds lie to avoid punishment4 year olds distinguish social convention from moral transgression – view moral transgressions as wrong and unchangeableoMiddle childhoodBelieve lies are morally wrong, not just against the rulesChapter 8
1st& 2ndgraders can be skilled liars do to improved ToM (theory of Mind)5th& 6thgraders understand what a lie istake intentions into account when judging others’ behaviorsoAdolescencemoral judgements continue to improveprosocial reasoning improves little if at allmay become more hedonistic and self protectingMoral reasoning in schoolAcademic dishonesty / cheatingoIncreases when students perceive that a teacher is unfairoResearch has shown that cheating is increasing in societyHow to reduce classroom cheatingoChallenge the belief that everyone does itoModel honestyoDevelop warm relationships with studentsoConvey that you care about learning oAvoid negative competitionoEnforce consequencesoBe fair in assignments and testsoMake cheating difficultWhat predicts moral judgement and behavior?oTheory of mind (ToM) (linked to judgment)oAuthoritative parenting (linked to judgement and behavior)Chapter 8
oEducation (mostly linked to judgement)oReligion (mostly linked to behavior)Classroom implications of moral judgement oMoral education: constructing morality from withinoCharacter education: handing down morality from without oTeach morality through everyday interaction with students: Modeling, caring, effective, disciplining, and being authoritativeChapter 8
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- Fall '11
- Psychology, Infants