Scientific misconduct and scientific error can have huge impact on society The

Scientific misconduct and scientific error can have

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Scientific misconduct and scientific error can have huge impact on society. The most famous retracted papers is Andrew’s Wakefield paper that stated that the measles vaccine was associated with a number of anomalies to children including autism. Childhood vaccines causes autism = FALSE but still maintained today in society even after the paper was retracted and studied. Science corrects itself = early findings are corrected through criticism and attempts of replication so in the long run science gets closer to the truth. Video 7 “According to recent studies” general term in journals. Observational (epidemiological) studies = studies where the assignment of subjects is not controlled by the investigator. - Case control studies = compare people with a specific condition to other people who are otherwise similar expect for that condition (control). Ex: cancer and people with no cancer and see what may have been responsible. These case, retrospective studies = you have to go back. Smoking and carcinoma of the lungs was the first successful case control study. - Cohort study = study of a group of people over a long period of time to determine which factor may be associated with the appearance of a specific condition. At the onset of the 13
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study, you don’t have the disease, and this is known as prospective because you are ahead of the disease. Better validity because you don’t have to rely on people saying what they ate years ago. - EPIC (European perspective investigation into cancer) study = involving 520 000 people in 10 European countries suggests that increased intake of fruits and vegetables has a minimal effect on cancer rates. - Increasing fruit and vegetable has minimal effect on cancer. - Correlation vs causation because epidemiological give relationship and do not prove causation Interventional study = assignment of subjects is controlled by the investigator. That is how you test the material and prove the causation. The first interventional study was found in the Bible. Compare the health of men only drinking wine and another group of men only eating vegetable and water to study their health. - Ex: Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces 60% risk of cancer (randomized trial, double blind and placebo control) - That is an interventional controlled study = randomized trial, double blind and placebo control. The best you can get. - Placebo response = if you believe it will help you, you will feel the beneficial effect. - Blind study = divide group into 2 and one gets a placebo and the other gets the drug and they do not know which group they are. You eliminate the chances of the placebo effect. - Double blind = prevent the researcher to have an influence on the subject. People can realize what the researcher gives. - Double blind randomized placebo-controlled study = make sure that the people in the group are randomly picked so that there are no confounding factors.
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  • The Bible, Vitamin

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