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CLEP Principles of Management 1

Leadership is a function of both structure and

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Leadership is a function of both structure and consideration and both are contingent on the needs of the followers. Based on the experience and affiliation needs of the followers either structure or consideration will be valued.The leader clears the way for goal accomplishment. 53. 54. Hershey and Blanchard - situational model – amount of direction (task behavior) and relationship behavior given: 55. Low employee – Low Task ( style required – Telling) low readiness level 56. High employee – High task ( Selling) moderate readiness level 57. High employee – Low Task (Participating) moderate readiness level 58. Low employee – Low Task (Delegating) high readiness level Leadership is dependent upon the level of group maturity. Immature groups (incompetent and unmotivated) need task directed leadership. Average groups need task and relationship leadership. Mature groups need less task and relationship leadership. 59. 60. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) - integrative philosophy of mgmt for continuously improving quality of products & /processes. Philip Cosby, Edward Deming, and Joseph Juran were all known for their theories on quality. All three were known for theories on quality. They all proposed theories on the importance of quality in an organization's products , and the responsibility of top management for implementing a quality program. TQM functions on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization. In other words, TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and even customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations. Considering the practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies, Cua, McKone, and Schroeder (2001) identified the nine common TQM practices as cross-functional product design, process management , supplier quality management, customer involvement, information and feedback , committed leadership , strategic planning , cross-functional training, and employee involvement. TQM requires a shift in approach toward control from bureaucratic to decentralized. In order to be effective, TQM must be supported at all levels of management. The term Total Quality Management itself implies a focus on all levels and areas of an organization. Since all employees will have responsibility for quality control, a shift toward a more decentralized approach to control is in order. By definition, decentralized companies extend authority to the lowest possible levels. Principles: Produce quality work the first time; Focus on the customer Have a strategic approach to improvement Improve continuously Encourage mutual respect and teamwork
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Used to try to improve bureaucracies that involve breaking through the hierarchy of an organization and encouraging teamwork involving both workers and managers. It also involves listening to customers in an attempt to improve the quality.
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