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monocropping (specific area, cash crop only produced)■monopoly (e.g. tobacco, sugar)○experts in agriculture & economy○Real Compania de Filipinas (like BEIC & DEIC)
■establish direct connection between Philippines & Spain; ended galleontrade so not much significance anymore = don’t need Mexico; worldpolitics changed; can sail westward (India, South Africa)French Revolution●water sheds of world history●bankrupt; supported US vs. British (American revolution)●massive famine —> Bread Riots in Paris (cannot eat anything) = let them eat cake “MarieAntoinette” due to aristocracy having parties●tipping point: storming of the Bastille  (represented prison where political enemiesof French monarchy aristocracy aka symbol of French authoritarianism; symbolize peoplecan actually topple/defeat monarchy —> massive execution of aristocracy aka Reign ofTerror —> invent guillotine to make efficient killings)Ancient Regime in France●rights w/ supreme authority: ; peasants w/ no rightsEnglish●parliamentary representation of ordinary people (House of Commons); remove socialstructure of aristocracy & clergy; equal citizens; you can jump ranks - e.g. Napoleon of Arc●equality, fraternity, liberty●aristocracy served as generals beforePhilippines●first to have railways vs. Japan by Spaniards●during Industrial Revolution(1815) end of Galleon Trade; thus make the best of situation for foreign merchant vessels(Americans, British, French)(1834)Bohol?? (<36:11)Mexico declared independence from SpainReliance in Agricultural production●implemented monopoly, coffee, sugar, tobacco, abaca●did not produce needs for colony much●export-oriented agri. economyHaciendas (land)●religious orders●private individuals given mortgage; w/ means of production; “hacienderos”●casamahanesprofit-sharing scheme
●haciendero (Spanish; 1/2 of profit from hacienda)●1/4 = inquilino (principalia/mestizo); 1/4 = kasamahanes (indio; pay for equipment & labor;not actually enough to pay debt = utang next agricultural season; 50 pesos a day)influx of foreigners●many foreign merchant houses = fund capital (e.g. Bonifacio worked)●—> mestizo class (before 19th century = intermarriage; but significant by 19th century =inquilinos = part of Class Media = where ilustrados come from)Clase Media●new rich; discrimination●very strong racial attitudes of Spanish to inquilinos; then called bestias cargadas de oro(beasts carrying gold)●attempted to copy lifestyle of Spaniards●1st floor = storage space of inani; top floor = business area / wood●status symbol: furniture = made of narra w/ no putol in the middle(especially 1990s)04/25/’1919th Century: Development of Philippine Nationalism●Tracing the roots of Philippine NationalismI.Economic Developments●Growth of export economy○Cash crops = primary export (e.g. tobacco, sugar, abaca, cotton)○Who benefitted■Control of land and capital (mestizo class, colonial gov’t., ?? <03:48)○Spanishpolicies:Monopoly(colonialgov’t.Controlledto maximize profit) &