Lecture 14 Transgenic Wheat and Wild Goatgrass  Potential for ±escape²of genes conferring herbicide resistance via pollen from transgenic plants to closely-related wild relatives, which are simply weed pests, is a problem. The probability of gene escape increases if plant species are closely related because of the possibility of cross pollination. The so-called ±high risk crops²and their weedy relatives includes: sorghum and its weedy relatives shattercane and johnsongrass; canola and mustards; wheat with jointed goat-grass and quackgrass; rice and red rice; sunflower and wild sunflower. In 2002, a herbicide resistance gene was naturally transferred via pollen from herbicide-tolerant wheat to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) in northwestern US.
Lecture 14 Transgenic Plants and Organic Crops  Gene flow can also result in the contamination of non-GMO crops by pollen from GMO crops- a special concern for organically-grown crops. This is because the organic producer has high production costs to not do ±factory²farming practices such as use of herbicides and pesticides. In turn the consumer of organic goods accepts a premium price to be sure that the food is ±uncontaminated². Because tests can detect very small quantities of cross-contamination, organic farmers are concerned that such cross-contamination will limit their ability to market organic crops which must contain no GMO seeds.
Lecture 14 Ethical Theories for Transgenic Plants 3.Environmental harms: Could reduce biodiversity; Genes may cross over to other plant species with unknown consequences for species in habitat; evolution of plants, insects, bacteria to be resistant to current control/eradication Non-malfeasance: to not cause reckless harm to the environment (deep ecology, holism) Rights/benficence: to benefit humankind (anthropocentrism) Professional Duty: to maintain a sustainable environment (shallow ecology) Justice: is environmental risk of GM shared by those able to bear the burden?
Lecture 14 Case Study : Schmeiser vs. Monsanto In 1970, Monsanto introduced a broad-spectrum herbicide containing the active ingredient, glyphosate, to kill unwanted plant pests both in agriculture and in non-agricultural landscapes. Roundup estimated use in U.S. is 85-90 million pounds per year. Most glyphosate-containing herbicides are comprised of 99% of other ingredients including surfactants and other chemicals that help glyphosate to penetrate plant cells. In 1996, Monsanto introduced a glyphosate-resistant gene for the canola plant, called Roundup Ready (RR) canola. Farmers growing RR canola seeds were able to control weeds using Roundup, while avoiding damage to Roundup-resistant canola crop.
Lecture 14 Case Study : Schmeiser vs. Monsanto Canola farmers are required through a formal agreement with Monsanto that they purchase new seed every year, and pay an annual licensing fee per acre In 2001, Percy Schmeiser , a farmer of a 1000 acre canola farm in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, was sued by Monsanto for allegedly growing Monsanto's patented, GM