states fighting ■ Shay’s Rebellion showed the weaknesses of not fully united states; showed tyranny and lack of loyalty, potential anarchy. Government need for the Regulation of money. ○ Constitution : a nation’s basic law; creates political institutions, assigns or divides power, provides guarantees to citizens ● Summarize the major compromises of the Constitutional Convention. ○ Bicameral Legislature : compromise between New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan because the House of Representatives is by population density and the Senate is two per state ○ 3/5ths Compromise : Southern states had more slaves and wanted them to count so they would have more representation, but the north didn’t want them to count. The compromise was that 3 out of 5 slaves would count. ○ Article V : of the Constitution so that they could make changes to it later and wouldn’t have to do it right away.
● Explain why Madison thought a republic was the best form of government. ○ Madisonian Model - central gov with Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary branches; no one branch has all of the power. Making laws is difficult but so is expanding power. Electoral College ○ Virginia Plan : proportional representation by state population ○ New Jersey Plan : equal representation to every state ● Describe the major issues between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists in the debates over ratification of the Constitution. ○ Federalists : national power ■ support Constitution ■ fine with government power ■ Indirect elections, longer terms, elite rule ○ Anti-Federalists : state power ■ opposed Constitution because felt the new government would compromise the freedom they had fought for ■ wanted less government power ■ Direct elections, shorter terms, common man rule ○ Compromise being able to amend the Constitution, Bill of Rights protect freedoms ● Summarize the arguments made by Madison in Federalist 10 and Federalist 51. ○ Federalist 10: the root of all political conflict is based on the unequal distribution of wealth and property; larger republics are better at diluting factions ○ Federalist 51 : check ambition against ambition with separation of powers and checks and balances; enable to control governed and oblige to control self ● Describe and illustrate with examples, the system of checks and balances. ○ Checks and Balance s: each branch needs the consent of the others for many actions ■ Legislative: makes laws ■ Executive: enforces laws ■ Judicial: interprets laws
■ ○ Thwarting Tyranny of Majority ■ Limiting Majority control of government ■ Separating Powers ■ Creating Checks and Balances ■ Establishing a Federal System ● Describe how the constitutional can be amended and identify the actors involved.