from the flood affected sites seeking temporary shelter cloths and loan seeds

From the flood affected sites seeking temporary

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from the flood affected sites, seeking temporary shelter, cloths and loan, seeds, building materials from the relatives, friends, villagers government and the relief agencies are the common conventional methods of coping actions as emergency measures by an individual household. From the PRA survey, adaptation measures pertaining to rescue and relief, livelihood, repair, reconstruction, and mitigation have been identified. These measures are inadequate to redeem the victim from disaster. In addition people also adopt some preparedness measures for coping the uncertainties of flood which are: Construction of wooden benches above the expected flood level for rescue and evacuation; Protection and storage of food, clothe and medicine, plastic sheets etc; Plantation of flood tolerant paddy, sugarcane or banana in the flood prone area; Storage of some extra amount of paddy seed for re-plantation; Temporary shifting of vulnerable members like pregnant women, children, old, sick and disable persons to safer places belonging to them or relatives or friends. These all activities are mainly done by individual households with some assistance from relatives and friends. There is also a people to people communication of warning of the upcoming flood based on the information related to rainfall intensity and water level of the Bagmati River in Kathmandu, weather forecast, and cloud condition in the upper catchments of the river. According to household survey estimates during flood times a family needs an average of NRs 5,676 (approximately US$ 85) a minimum amount to sustain his family. Out of this about 45% is meant for food and shelter, 18% for cloths, 25% of medicines, rest for other purposes which include utilities, transport, etc. It is also estimated that an average household spends about NRs. 16,832 (approximately 253 US$) on relief, recovery, reconstruction and rehabilitation during high flood events. About 48% households have spent more than NRs 10,000 (approximately 150 US$) for response and recovery activities in the last flood event. The main sources of spending are previous saving, loans, extra wage labor, mortgaging land, and selling property (land, livestock and Jewelry). In addition, dismantling house structure (9%), and migration to other areas (8%) are other means of adjustment. It was perceived that the price of the basic staple foods rose by 28% in average with standard deviation of 12%. This indicates that flood inflicts severe economic stress upon the people living in flood prone area. The condition of indebtness, dissaving and losing land and livestock, the main livelihood assets brought about by such unsustainable coping measures worsens the livelihood of the people and forces them to live under vicious circle of poverty. 11
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