PLCP 3410 Study Guide --PART III

But there are continued fights over who has right to

This preview shows page 20 - 22 out of 74 pages.

But there are continued fights over who has right to the water. Chapter 24 – Turkey Key Facts Capital – Ankara Religion – Muslim (99.8%) Ethnic Groups – Turkish (80-85%), Kurdish (15-20%), Arab (2%) Official Language – Turkish, Kurdish, other minority languages History of State Formation Modern Turkey is descended from the Ottoman Empire (1299-1922) which left 2 important legacies: o The elaborate system of public administration comprised of ilmiye (religious authorities), seyfiye (the army), and kalemiye (a primitive bureaucracy)
Image of page 20

Subscribe to view the full document.

o The multicultural nature of the empire based on the millet system (monotheistic, non-Muslim religious communities in the Ottoman Empire with their own laws, institutions, and religious leaders that were subject to the sultan’s full authority) From Ottoman Empire to Turkish Republic o After WWI the allies, in the Treaty of Sevres negotiated a partition to divide Anatolia among themselves, which the sultan accepted. A national resistance movement led by General Mustafa Kemal resisted. o A few members of the last Ottoman parliament proclaimed sovereignty as the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in effect launching a rebellion against the sultan and occupying powers. o By 1922 the Turks achieved victory and was recognized as sovereign by the Lausanne peace treaty. This established Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in a position of virtually unchallengeable authority. He subsequently launched a determined campaign of cultural reorientation. Atatürk’s Cultural Revolution o Turkey was declared a republic in 1923 with Atatürk as its president. o The office of the caliph was soon separated from the head of state and ultimately abolished by the GNA in an effort toward secularization. o Often called “modernization from above” because it took more quickly with educated elites Changing Society: Turkey’s Tumultuous Modernization Center-Periphery Cleavage – The more religion was ousted from the central cultural system, the more removed the center became from its periphery Poverty, Regional Disparity, Gender Gap, and Informality o The SE is typically much poorer than the rest of the country, there is a significant gender gap with women being less educated and the informality of the Turkish Economy does not help with this Ongoing Secularism Debate o Based on 3 revolutionary legal reforms of 1924 – 1925 The elimination of the caliphate and the closure of the religious courts, sects, shrines, convents, and monasteries The replacement of the Ministry of Religious Law and Pious Foundation by the Directorate of Religious Affairs The unification of the education o Since the Erbakan, a member of the Islamist National Salvation Party (MSP), there has been deep polarization on the secularism-Islamist axis o Issues such as the headscarf, status of religious schools, debates on creationism, and recent controversies b/w the police and military Ethnicity and the Kurdish Question o The combined harsh treatment and regional economic disparity associated with
Image of page 21
Image of page 22

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern