Biofortification of phytofortification it is the

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Biofortification of phytofortification – It is the process of increasing the bioavailable concentrations of essential nutrients in edible portions of food crops through agronomic intervention or genetic selection; essential nutrients like trace elements, vitamins and metabolites which are accumulated or synthesized during the growth and development of selected plants can be used as food or feed (healthy diet) in many areas (Kralova & Masarovicova, 2006). Metal Nanoparticles – The natural production of metal nanoparticles viz. TiO 2 , ZNo, Al 2 O 3 , AgNO 3 etc. in plants of contaminated sites are often offered resistance to plants against invasion of disease and pests or render better stress adaptability to salt or water (li & Xing, 2007; Havenkamp & Karshall, 2009).
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Cadmium phytoremediation: The main anthropogenic pathway through which Cd enters the water bodies is via wastes and waste waters from industrial processes such as electroplating, plastic manufacturing, metallurgical processes and industries of pigments and Cd/Ni batteries Cadmium exists in wastewaters in many forms including soluble, insoluble, inorganic, metal organic, reduced, oxidized, free metal, precipitated adsorbed and complexed forms. Watanabe et al. (2009) grew selected species of family Amaranthaceae viz. Amaranthus tricolor, and observed the higher Cd-accumulating properties in plants. Later similar hyper accumulation properties of Cd were reported in Brassica juncea (Family Cruciferae), Chrysanthemum indicum (Family Asteraceae) and some other plants, using EDTA chelator, the hyper accumulation of Cd – can be enhanced many fold n vitro & in vivo.
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Arsenic phytoremediation: In lower part of gangetic delta & Brahmaputra basin, groundwater arsenic contamination is a natural geogenic processes. However, in many parts of Asia, arsenical products have been widely used in agriculture and industrial practices viz. pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes and coal fly ash, which are of great environmental concern. The Chinese brake fern Pteris vittata is a major arsenic hyperaccumulating plants which can accumulate 23 g kg-1 of arsenic in its fronds. Similarlarly, other species Pteris longifolia, Pteris umbrosa and Pityrogramma calomelanos are also known to be hyperaccumualtors. In presence of available phosphate, the uptake of As- by the plants appears to be higher. The root associated VAM fungi in ferns also helps in hyperaccumulation of arsenic.
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Mercury phytoremediation: The mercury contamination in environment is primarily anthropogenic, more precisely, industrial sources viz. coal thermal plant, iron and steel industry, chloralkali plants, battery industry and so on being the mail sources. Bioremediation by microbes in mercury contaminated site detoxification is quite established. Bacteria and several higher plants have properties to make phytovolatilization of mercury at contaminated sites.
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Chromium phytoremediation: Chromium is the chief heavy metal contaminant found in the tannery effluent and chromite mine areas.
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