Consensual sexual contact with a person younger than a state’s age of consent Age differences may or may not matter Male rape: Can be committed by men or women; most are other men Sodomy: forced anal intercourse Under reported due to several reasons Motivations for Rape Anger rape More physical violence is used than necessary if intent was to simply overpower Weapons Power rape Act of dominance to restore assailant’s sense of control Sadistic rape Least frequent Most brutal, often using bondage, sever injury or death The Aftermath of Rape Rape trauma syndrome Emotional changes undergone as a result of rape Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Acute phase - immediately following the rape and may last for several weeks or more Feelings of self-blame and fear Long term phase - the rape is a crisis in a person’s life and relationships Effects on sexuality Fear of sex & lack of desire Child Sexual Abuse Any sexual interaction between and adult and a prepubescent child Categorization in terms of kin relationship: Extrafamilial abuse - Sexual abuse by unrelated people Intrafamilial abuse - Sexual abuse by biologically related people and step-relatives Nonpedophilic sexual abuse - An adult's sexual interaction with a child that is not sexually motivated Children separate from parents or unsupervised are at most risk Effects of Child Sexual Abuse Initial effects: occurring in the first couple of years Emotional disturbances Fear, anger, hostility, guilt, shame Physical consequences Changes in sleeping, eating, pregnancy, STIs Sexual disturbances Open masturbation, sexual preoccupation, exposure of genitals, indiscriminate/ frequent sexual behaviors Social disturbances School problems, running away, early marriages Effects of Child Sexual Abuse Long-term effects: Depression Self-destructive tendencies Suicide thoughts/attempts Somatic disturbances and dissociation Anxiety, eating disorders, "spaciness", out-of-body experiences, feeling that things are "unreal" Negative self-concept Low self-esteem, isolation, alienation Interpersonal relationship difficulties
Revictimization: abused child raped again as adult Sexual function difficulties Sexual Abuse Trauma (brown & Finkelhor, 1986) Traumatic sexualization Inappropriately associate sexual behaviors and emotions; sexually dysfunctional Betrayal Feel betrayed that someone on whom they have been dependent has manipulated, used, or harmed them Powerlessness When their bodies and personal space are invaded against their will Stigmatization Feelings of guilt and shame Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Child abuse prevention (CAP) programs aimed at: Children Stress that abuse is not the child's fault Say no, get away, tell a trusted adult Parents/ Professionals Help parents discover abuse, identify warning signs Teachers, physicians, police, mental health workers Megan’s Law (1995) Requires law enforcement authorities to make information about registered sex offenders available to the public Chapter 18: The oldest profession in the world. Sexually Explicit Materials, Prostitution, and Sex Laws
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- Spring '08