ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

He asked people to describe situations when they felt

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Herzberg investigated the question, “What do people want from their jobs?” He asked people to describe situations when they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. He concluded that the replies people gave about their jobs when they felt good were significantly different from the replies given when they felt bad. Herzberg concluded that removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying.
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According to Herzberg, managers who seek to eliminate factors that create job dissatisfaction can bring about peace, but not necessarily motivation. Factors that tend to placate workers have been characterized by Herzberg as hygiene factors. Such characteristics as company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary have been characterized by Herzberg as hygiene factors. When they are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; however, neither will they be satisfied. If management wants to motivate employees, he suggests emphasizing achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and growth. Clayton Alderfer of Yale University reworked Maslow’s need hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research. His revised need hierarchy is labeled ERG theory. Alderfer argues that there are three groups of core needs—existence, relatedness, and growth—hence the label ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. The second group of needs is those of relatedness, which is the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. Alderfer also isolates growth needs, which is the intrinsic desire for personal development. Maslow’s hierarchy is a rigid steplike progression, but Alderfer’s ERG theory isn’t as rigid where a lower need must be gratified before one can move on. In the ERG theory, all three need categories can be operating at the same time. McClelland's theory of needs focus on three needs: achievement, power, and affiliation . McClelland and his associates say that the need to achieve is a personality characteristic and is important in organizational settings for understanding motivation. The achievement need is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards; and to strive to succeed. The power need is the desire to make others behave in a way that they would not otherwise have behaved in. The affiliation need is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Some people have a compelling drive to succeed. This drive is the achievement need, according to McClelland. The people with the achievement need (nAch) are striving for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success per se. They have a desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before. McClelland found that high achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desire to do things better. High achievers are not gamblers; they dislike succeeding by chance. They prefer the challenge of working at a problem and accepting the personal responsibility for success or failure rather than leaving the outcome to chance or to the actions of others.
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