9.SOCIAL MARGINALITYrefers to the state of being part insider and part outsider in the social structure, such as that of immigrants who simultaneously share the life and traditions of two distinct groups. 11.Teacher, student, professional athlete, rock musician, and homeless person are all examples of 12.Which of these isan example ofan achieved status? 13.Charles has a final exam in the evening at a time when he is supposed to be working. That same evening, Stephanie (his girlfriend) wants him to take her to a movie. To top it off, his mother calls, asking him to fly home because his father is going to have emergency surgery. Sociologists would say that Charles is very likely experiencing
14. Sociologist Erving Goffman noted that people consciously participate in STUDIED NON- OBSERVANCE , a face-saving technique in which one role player ignores the flaws in another’s performance to avoid embarrassment for everyone involved. 15. Conflict and functionalist theorists are in agreement that social institutions are originally organized to meet basic needs within society 16. Which of these is the best example of a primary group? People working together in the same department 17. Which of these statements about social structure is false? Social structure creates relationships that are generally equal. 18. The expectations for being a college student include attending class, completing assignments, and being involved in campus activities. These expectations are an example of a ROLE 19. We act on reality as we see it. Sociologists describe this process as the DEFINITION OF THE SITUATION, meaning that we analyze a social context in which we find ourselves, determine what is in our best interest, and adjust our attitudes and actions accordingly. 20. Which of these statements about personal space is false? Space is less important than other forms of communication, and violations of personal space are easily ignored 21. When ROLE CONFLICT occurs, we may feel pulled in different directions. We may prioritize our roles and first complete the one we consider to be most important. Or we may compartmentalize our lives and “insulate” our various roles. 22. CONFLICT theorists maintain that in capitalistic societies, where a few people control the labor of many, the social structure reflects a system of relationships of domination and subordination 23. Some symbolic interaction theorists believe that there is very little shared reality beyond that which is socially created. They refer to this as the SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY , which is the process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.
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- Sociology, Erving Goffman