Has membrane surrounding the chromosome bacteriodetes

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Has membrane surrounding the chromosome Bacteriodetes Bacteroides Ferment many plant-based sugars Levels of Bacteroides spp. in the colon linked to obesity Interact and develop the immune system Lack of Bacteroides has been linked to: Autism Depression Schizophrenia Alzheimers Auto-immune disorders Medically Important Bacteria Gram Positive Staphylococcus (members cause boils, skin infections) Streptococcus (species cause strep throat, dental caries) Peptococcus , Peptostreptococcus (involved in wound infections) Bacillus (anthrax), Clostridium (tetanus, gas gangrene, botulism) Lactobacillus , Listeria (food infection) Propionibacterium (involved in acne) Corynebacterium (diphtheria) Mycobacterium (tuberculosis, leprosy) Nocardia (lung abscesses) Actinomyces (dental infections) Streptomyces (important source of antibiotics) Gram Negative Neisseria (gonorrhea, meningitis) Veillonella (dental disease) Pseudomonas (pneumonia, burn infections) Brucella (undulant fever), Bordetella (whooping cough) Francisella (tularemia) Coxiella (Q fever) Legionella (Legionnaires' disease) Escherichia, Edwardsiella, Citrobacter Salmonella (typhoid fever) Shigella (dysentery)
Klebsiella Enterobacter Serratia Proteus Yersinia (one species causes plague) Campylobacter (enteritis) Helicobacter (ulcers) Flavobacterium Haemophilus (meningitis), Pasteurella (bite infections) Bacteroides , Fusobacterium , Acinetobacter (anaerobic wound and dental infections) Treponema (syphilis) Borrelia (Lyme disease) Leptospira (kidney infection) Rickettsia (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) Ehrlichia (human ehrlichosis) Chlamydia (sexually transmitted infection) Bartonella (trench fever, cat scratch disease) Mycoplasma (pneumonia) Ureaplasma (urinary infection) Chapter 5 Nucleus Nuclear envelope Nucleolus - dark area for rRNA synthesis and ribosome assembly Chromosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) – rough due to ribosomes; proteins synthesized and shunted into the ER for packaging and transport; first step in secretory pathway Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) – without ribosomes; functions in nutrient processing, synthesis, and storage of lipids Golgi Modifies, stores, and packages proteins Consists of a stack of flattened sacs called cisternae Lysosomes - Vesicles containing digestive enzymes that originate from Golgi apparatus Involved in intracellular digestion of food particles and in protection against invading microbes Vacuoles - Membrane bound sacs containing particles to be digested, excreted, or stored
Phagosomes - Vacuoles merged with a lysosome Mitochondria Function in energy production and storage (ATP) outer membrane and an inner membrane with highly folded Inner membrane holds the enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration Divide independently of cell DNA and prokaryotic ribosomes are contained Chloroplast Convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis Found in algae and plant cells Outer membrane covers inner membrane folded into sacs called thylakoids They carry pigments (chlorophyll and others)

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