Strengthens a given response by removing an aversive

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Strengthens a given response by removing an aversive stimulusEx: car beeping when your seatbelt isn’t on-ShapingoProcedure in which reinforcers guide behavior closer towards desired target behavior through successive approximationEx: rats shaped to sniff mines, manatees discriminate objects with different shapes, colors, and sizes, training a dog to open doors and get stuff for handicapped-PunishmentoAny stimulus that decreases the likelihood or a prior response-Skinner’s LegacyoSkinner argued behaviors were shaped by external influences and not inner thoughts and feelings. Critics argued that Skinner dehumanized people by neglecting their free will-Classical ConditioningoA form of learning in which one stimulus is paired with another so that the organism learns the relationship between (Dwight with altoids and computer noise)oPavlov focused on classical conditioning involving non-voluntary behavioroUnconditioned stimulus (US):A stimulus (event) that always triggers an unconditioned (involuntary) response in the absence of any training (food for a dog)oUnconditioned response (UR)An unlearned response to an unconditioned stimulus that always occurs (dog salivating)oNeutral Stimulus (NS): playing a tone then offering the treat-Acquisition
oThe initial learning stage where the association between a neutral stimulus and an US takes placeoEventually, whenever the tone comes up, the dog will perk up for foodoConditioned Stimulus (CS)A neutral stimulus (event) that comes to evoke a conditioned (learned) responsedue to being presented in close proximity to the unconditioned stimulusoConditioned response (CR)A learned response similar to an unconditioned response, that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus-Phobias and Addictions Have Learned ComponentsoPhobiaAn acquired fear out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situationHypothetically, how can you can create a phobia in someone?-Classical Conditioning in HumansoJohn Watson and Rosaline Rayner demonstrated that emotions can be learned by classically conditioning 9-month-old to fearThey did this by making a scary noise whenever the baby tried to get ratDesensitization: undoing the phobia induced-Cognitive Processes and Biological Constraints-Classical Conditioning Is SelectiveoMartin Seligman and preparedness:Certain conditioned responses are acquired very easily (food poisoning from sushi)The ease with which we develop conditioned taste aversions illustrates preparedness-Observational LearningoThe acquisition or modification of a behavior afer exposure to at least one performance of that behavior-Imitation OnsetoLearning by observation begins early in lifeoLittle kids imitating what they see on TVoWatching someone perform surgery before you do it-Bandura’s Bobo experimentoIndividuals learned through imitating others who receive reward and punishmentoAttention:One must pay attention to a behavior and its consequencesoRetention:One must recall what was observedoReproduction

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