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noted. The proportion of birth-related costs due to NAS grew from 1.6% in 2004 to 6.7% in 2014 among infants enrolled in Medicaid, with annual costs of ∼$462 million in the final year of available data (Winkleman et al.2018).Back pain was the most commonly associated condition and was present in 37% of patients dispensed anopioid during pregnancy and 61% of those dispensed opioids three or more times during pregnancy. Other conditions that were most commonly associated with opioid exposure included abdominal pain, migraine, joint pain, and fibromyalgia (Bateman et al.,2019)Potential health risks for pregnant patients must be identified such as behavior changes in lifestyle choices such as drug use, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, and environmental exposures. Provider recommendations and patient education programs are available but there is still some patients
struggling to adhere to recommended lifestyle changes during pregnancy, posing health risks for both the mother and child. Recognizing and educating the mother of the dangers associated with nonadherence is an important task of the provider (CDC,2019).Brian T. Bateman, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, James P. Rathmell, John D. Seeger, Michael Doherty, Michael A. Fischer, Krista F. Huybrechts; Patterns of Opioid Utilization in Pregnancy in a Large Cohort of Commercial Insurance Beneficiaries in the United States. Anesthesiology 2014;120(5):1216-1224. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000172.Data and Statistics About Opioid Use During Pregnancy.2019. Retrieved from Tyler N.A. Winkelman, Nicole Villapiano, Katy B. Kozhimannil, Matthew M. Davis, Stephen W. Patrick. Incidence and Costs of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Among Infants With Medicaid: 2004–2014.2018.Pediatrics Apr 2018, 141 (4) e20173520; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-3520