Lecture1-HistoryOfCognitivePsychology.pptx

Perceptual decision making in uncertain conditions

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perceptual decision making in uncertain conditions assumed an active “ top- down ” form of information processing, not a passive pairing of stimulus and response predicted by behaviorism. 19
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B. F. Skinner Noam Chomsky (early 1960’s) Failure of the Behaviorist Approach to Explain the Main Aspects of Language Acquisition and Usage - Noam Chomsky’s Critique of Skinner’s Book, Verbal Behavior 20
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Children do not need to be taught language; rather, they self-learn most of the key features of language usage in a matter of a few years (some would even argue months). Each day, we utter sentences and phrases in particular word combinations that we have never uttered before, a fact that speaks against stimulus-response (S-R) learning of language. Some Features of Language Development and Usage That Behaviorism Cannot Explain 21
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Internal mental processes and events do exist, and these are often much more interesting and worthwhile to study than simple stimulus-response associations. Humans (and most animals) are active processors of information in their environment, not simply passive recipients of this information. Mental processes can be studied using scientific methods that are as rigorous as any used during the Behaviorist period or in the natural sciences. Tenets of an Emergent Cognitive Psychology in the early 1960’s 22
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Early cognitive psychologists beginning in the 1960’s derived inspiration from a broad range of disciplines, not just from within traditional psychology. 23
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Inspirations for Early Cognitive Psychologists : Self-Regulating Cybernetic Devices Thermostat Switch 120 V Heat Element (e.g., bathroom heater) Electrical Line 24
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Inspirations for Early Cognitive Psychologists : Self-Regulating Cybernetic Devices Robot-Controlled Vehicle 25
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Inspirations for Early Cognitive Psychologists : Instinctive Behavior in Animals Konrad Lorenz - Imprinting Keller and Marian Breland - Instinctual “Drift” 26
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Inspirations for Early Cognitive Psychologists : Artificial Intelligence Turing Test : Test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior Human Interrogator Human 27 Computer
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Inspirations for Early Cognitive Psychologists : Artificial Intelligence Simon, Shaw, and Newell’s General Problem Solver (GPS) 28
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