Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we

Krashen believes that there is no fundamental

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Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we acquire our first language and our subsequent languages. He claims that humans have an innate ability that guides the language learning process. Infants learn their mother tongue simply by listening attentively to spoken language that is meaningful to them. Foreign languages are acquired in the same way. Krashen’s Monitor Model has 5 components: The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis: There are two ways of developing language ability: by acquisition and by learning. The Natural Order Hypothesis: Language is acquired in a predictable order by all learners. The Monitor Hypothesis: We are able to use what we have learned (in Krashen's sense) about the rules of a language in monitoring (or self-correcting) our language output. The Input Hypothesis: We acquire language in one way only: when we are exposed to input (written or spoken language) that is comprehensible to us. The Affective Filter Hypothesis: Comprehensible input will not result in language acquisition if that input is filtered out before it can reach the brain's language processing faculties. The filtering may occur because of anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation. Research by Krashen and Cummins are similar because they both demonstrate that students who first learn to read in their native language acquire a second language at a faster rate. Cummins believes that first language acquisition and second language acquisition are seperate. I agree with Krashen that the acquisition of a second language is both subconscious through our everyday living and conscious process when we learn the grammar aspect of a new language. Although some criticize Krashen because they think he doesn’t give enough importance to language instruction
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Hello Nancy! You have very interesting points and I am quite intrigue with your summation of the Cummins and Krashen’s theories on second language acquisition. I get your view and totally understand Cummins BICS and CALP differentiation and on what you said at the end of your discussion about Krashen’s proposition on the subconscious acquisition of the second language, through everyday living as a process of learning a new language. As you mentioned about Cummins’s Separate Underlying Proficiency (SUP) that states about language being maintained and learned separately in the human brain is quite interesting because this explanation, I think, is just one aspect of the “tip of the ice-berg” analogy to the more profound Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) by the same author. From what I understand, the analogy explicitly shows that on the outside, the tip of the ice-berg may be growing separately, as in L1 and L2 learning (being maintained and learned separately as what you mentioned), but underneath, the two concepts overlapped and/or are interrelated. Cummins said that if a student has an excellent foundation (as in beneath the ice-berg) of reading in L1 this particular ability transfers to L2 learning (Echevarría, 2015). I believe the operative
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  • Summer '19
  • Stephen Krashen

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