AMH 2010Chapter 2 Notes Aug. 31 By 1630s English settlers had established 6 significant colonies:1.Virginia2.Massachusetts3.Maryland4.Connecticut5.Rhode Island6.New Hampshire After 1632 the English government launched no additional colonial ventures because it was preoccupied with troubles of its own at home.The English Civil War:Problems in England aroused when Charles I dissolved parliament, and became an absolute monarch.When he was desperate for money, he called back parliament, asked to levy new taxes and in two years dismissed the members twice.The members got mad and organized a military challenge to the King launching the English Civil War.Roundheads (The forces of Parliament, mostly Puritans) and the Cavaliers (Supporters of the King) fought for 7 years.1649 the Roundheads won the war and decapitated Charles I.Oliver Cromwell: Leader of Roundheads was nominated as “Protector”. When he died hisson took over, but failed so Charles II came back to rule.Charles II rewarded faithful courtiers with grants of land in the New World. He issued charters for four additional colonies : 1.Carolina2.New York3.New Jersey4.PennsylvaniaCompanies were no longer interested in the New World since (finally) they realized no quick profit will be made from them.Colonies were now looked as, as permanent settlements that would provide proprietors with land and power.The Carolinas:Charles II awarded Carolina land to 8 court favorites, all politicians already active in colonial affairs. Received kingly powers over land. (Like Lord Baltimore).Also like Lord Baltimore: They reserved large estates for themselves, and proposed to sell or give away to settlers for annual payments “quitrents”. (Headright system).