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John Browncut his teeth as a killer as an anti-slavery “Jayhawker” during Bleeding Kansas. In mid-October of 1859, the crusading abolitionist organized a small band of white allies and free blacks and raided a government arsenalin Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He hoped to seize weapons and distribute them to Southern slaves in order to spark a wracking series of slave uprisings. Although Brown captured the arsenal, he was quickly surrounded and forced to surrender by soldiers under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee.He was tried for treason and, upon his execution, became a martyr for the abolitionist cause. Southerners, on the other hand, began to militarize in preparation for future raids. 7.Upper South’s Succession Following Lincoln’s election, the southern states seceded from the Union. Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War. Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be separated or divided. Most Southerners believed that the states had freely created and joined theunion and could freely leave it. a.The Election of 1856i.Bleeding Kansas was the hottest topic in the presidential election of 1856. Democrat James Buchanan eventually defeated his Republican and Know-Nothing foes after many Southern states threatened to secede if a Republican became the next president. Just days after Buchanan took office, a new controversy hit: Chief Justice Roger Taney, along with a majority of the other justices of the Supreme Court, declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott v. Sanforddecision. The ruling startled Northerners because it meant that slavery technically could no longer be banned anywhere in the United Statesb.South Carolina made good on its threats and seceded from the Union shortly after Lincoln’s election. Six other states soon followed. Together, they established a new government called the Confederate States of America in Richmond, Virginia, and chose Jefferson Davis asits first president. Four slave states, however, chose to remain in the Union. These border states proved invaluable to the North in the war.
c. In April 1861, Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, a Union stronghold in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. The Union forces fell after intense bombardment, and the Civil War had begun. Shortly after the battle, four more states seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy.8.Abolition of Slavery in Northern StatesThere were five components to this Compromise of 1850 . First, California would be admitted as a free state. Second, popular sovereignty would determine the fate of the other western territories. Third, Congress would cancel some of Texas’s debts and, in exchange, give some of Texas’s western land to New Mexico Territory. Fourth, slave trading would be banned in Washington, D.C. Finally, Congress would pass a tougher Fugitive Slave Law, to reduce the number of slaves who escaped to the North and Canada every year. Although Southerners had not