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The city of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexicoemerged as a major center of trade. It was followed by the postclassical ToltecEmpire, which adapted the cultural, ritual, and aesthetic practices that influencedlater empires like the Aztecs.4.What were the physical, social, and intellectual features of early societies in theAmericas?a.Agricultural advancement had definitive social and political consequences.Careful cultivation of the land brought a reliable and steady food supply, whichcontributed to a relatively high fertility rate. As a result, population in theAmericas grew steadily and may have reached about 15 million by the firstcentury b. c. e. This growth in population allowed for the creation of the firsturban societies.5.What were the sources of strength, prosperity, and problems for the Incas in creating theirenormous empire?a.In the center of Peru rise cold highlands of the Andes. Six valleys of fertile andwooded land at altitudes ranging from eight thousand to eleven thousand feetpunctuate highland Peru. The largest of these valleys are the Huaylas, Cuzco, andTiticaca. It was there that Inca civilization developed and flourished. Like theAztecs, the Incas started as a small militaristic group. But they grew in numbersand power as they conquered surrounding groups, eventually establishing one ofthe most extraordinary empires in the world. Gradually, Inca culture spread
throughout Peru.6.What aspects of nomadic life gave the nomads of Central Asia military advantages overnearby settled civilizations?a.One experience Rome, Persia, India, and China all shared was conflict withnomads who came from the very broad region referred to as Central Asia. Thisregion was dominated by the steppe, arid grasslands that stretched from modernHungary, through southern Russia and across Central Asia and adjacent parts ofChina, to Mongolia and parts of present northeast China. Initially small innumber, the nomadic peoples of this region used their military superiority toconquer first other nomads, then the nearby settled societies. In the process theycreated settled empires of their own that drew on the cultures they absorbed.