Negatively or positively reinforced o focused on how

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negatively or positively reinforced o Focused on how effects of a behavior influence probability that it will occur again
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o Law of effect – instrumental or operant responses are influenced by their effects Responses followed by rewards are strengthen while those followed by discomfort are weakened o Punisher – stimulus that decreases strength of operant behavior when it’s a consequence of a behavior Operant conditioning provides a method for studying how consequences influence voluntary ” behavior o Classical conditioning depends on “ involuntary ” behavior Difference btwn classical and instrumental conditioning is what is learned o Classical conditioning – animal learned to associate a stimulus w/ a response Response is elicited by the stimulus that comes before it o Operant conditioning – animal learned to associate a behavior w/ a response Response is emitted since operant behaviors are voluntary CS that signal food is near elicit salivation but also secretion of gastric acid, pancreatic enzymes, and insulin o Response to CS prepares body for digestion – elicits approach behavior and a state of excitement o Humans are inclined to eat or feel hungry in response to cues associated w/ food Flavors associated w/ certain nutrients can become preferred w/o arousing any awareness of pairing o Flavors associated w/ stomach pain or illness become avoided and disliked o Taste aversion conditioning – taste is paired w/ sickness & causes you to dislike the taste in the future o Fear conditioning – CS is associated w/ aversive US, CS comes to evoke fear in organism Drug cues – drugs can be associated w/ cues that are present at the same time o Drugs elicit responses that “compensate” for upcoming effect of the drug o Someone about to take morphine may be more sensitive to pain since it knows a pain reliever is coming Conditioned compensatory responses – conditioned response that opposes unconditioned response o Reduces strength of unconditioned response especially when drugs are the unconditioned stimuli o Overdoses may not be due to increased dosage but to taking the drug in a new place w/o familiar cues o
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