Within CZ, Soviets intimidated non communists to resign, Jan Masaryk, Foreign minister, ‘fell out of a window’... left President Benes isolated… he died 1948 ●New elections held… uncontested communist victory & Gottwald became president●Truman called it a coup●Gottwald’s puppet government in CZ now resembled a Stalinist system (single ideology, state security, show trials 1950 to execute Rudolf Slansky, etc) P3 - Other Countries: East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia ●Became the GDR 1949… Communist rule imposed ●In Hungary: ●Percentages Agreement concluded by Churchill and Stalin in Moscow in 1944: At that time, it was to be 50% under the influence of the USSR and 50% under the USA.Later Accepted it would fall under Soviet sphere of influence●Rigged elections were held in August 1947, leaders of non-communist parties fled, their parties incorporated into a communist led coalition: National Independence Front●Romania●Romania was a defeated enemy●It’s fate had been settled by Churchill and Stalin in the Percentages Agreement (1994) → it would fall under Soviet influence●In 1947, Peasant Partyleader Ion Maniu was accused of being an agent of the US and Britain. He and other leaders were arrested. ●Peasant party forced to merge w/ communist… coalition won rigged elections.●Bulgaria ●Bulgaria had been an enemy, but was treated as a liberated ally●Its fate had been settled by Churchill and Stalin in the Percentages Agreement (1944). It was to fall within the Soviet sphere of influence
● In June 1947, the leader of the Agrarian Party, Nikola Petkov, was arrested ● The Agrarian party was merged with the communists in the Fatherland Front ● During 1948, the coalition won rigged elections ● Yugoslavia followed its own path towards communism under Tito… he was seen as a hero who had liberated the Nazi’s. ○ Stalin was upset that he didn’t have control over Yugoslavia.
NATO The Warsaw Pact UN The Berlin airlift crisis led to the establishment of two separate German States. May 1949 - Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Proclaimed. Konrad Adenauer won the elections and became Chancellor. In September 1949 , Russian’s formed a separate East German state, the German Democratic Republic. Germany now: FDR (West) and GDR (East). ^ There had been a genuine fear after the airlift ciris that USSR would conquer West Berlin. NATO was formed to ‘keep the Russians out, the German’s down, and Americans in’ NATO was a major commitment to USA, as it was their first European treaty since the 1700s. NATO included 12 states If one country attacked… it would be considered an attack on them all. West Germany granted membership 1955. Within a week of Germany’s admittance into NATO, the USSR announced the formation of the Warsaw Pact (1955).