The division of humanity into developed and undeveloped regions o 2 million

The division of humanity into developed and

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The division of humanity into developed and undeveloped regions o 2 million people became undeveloped o Development Project Project emphasizes the political content of development , as an organizing principle rather than an end in itself - Ingredients of the Development Project o The Nation-State Political systems based on the government-citizen relationship that emerged in 19 th C Europe o Economic Growth Mandatory UN System of Nation Accounts institutionalized a universal quantifiable measure of national development The UN Charter of 1945: Proclaimed a rising standard of living as the global objective The Key criterion was measurable progress toward the “good society” Cultural practices of wealth sharing and cooperative labour
Perceived as traditional obstacle to making the transition Solution: Introduce a market system Based on private property and accumulation of wealth o Framing the Development Project Jeremy Bentham, Common good arising out of the pursuit of self interest National industrialization would be the vehicle of development in each - National Industrialization: Ideal and Reality o Had two key assumptions: It assumed that development involved the displacement of agrarian civilization by an urban-industrial society Nation development policy, deliberating shrinking of the agricultural population as the manufacturing and service sectors grew. Transferring of resources - Linear direction for development Playing catch-up with the West - Economic Nationalism o Development state: Organizes economic growth by mobilizing money and people Uses individual and private taxes to finance public building of transport systems o Import-Substitution Industrialization Economic Nationalism sought to reverse the colonial division of labour Resource Bondage : Dependency on primary exports Became the new orthodox in the post war era To secure an expanding industrial base, 3 rd world governments constructed political coalitions to help rapid industrialization Latin American development alliance Development Alliance was a vehicle for political patronage : Governments could manipulate electoral support Chapter 3: The Development Project: International Relations
- 1960s – 70s, Development Decades o To mobilize internal development cooperation. - International Framework o Depression ( 1930s ) & WWII ( 1939-1945 ) The US spearheaded 2 initiatives to reconstruct the world: The bilateral Marshall Plan o Formalized under Bretton Woods o Not fully operational until 1950s The multilateral Bretton Woods program - US Bilateralism: The Marshall Plan o The US hoped to use financial aid to stabilize discontented populations and rekindle economic growth Central to this strategy : Containing Communism o The plan was a bilateral transfer of billions of dollars to Europe and Japan The plan : Restore trade and price stability , and expanded production To under cut socialist movements and labour militancy Dollar credits , allowing recipients to purchase US goods Solidifying political loyalty to the Western “free world” -

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