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The division of humanity into developed and undeveloped regionso2 million people became undevelopedoDevelopment ProjectProject emphasizes the political content of development, as an organizing principle rather than an end in itself-Ingredients of the Development ProjectoThe Nation-StatePolitical systems based on the government-citizen relationship that emerged in 19thC EuropeoEconomic GrowthMandatory UN System of Nation Accounts institutionalized a universal quantifiable measure of national developmentThe UN Charter of 1945:Proclaimed a rising standard of living as the global objectiveThe Key criterion was measurable progress toward the “good society”Cultural practices of wealth sharing and cooperative labour
Perceived as traditional obstacleto making the transitionSolution: Introduce a market systemBased on private property and accumulation of wealthoFraming the Development ProjectJeremy Bentham, Common good arising out of the pursuit of self interestNational industrializationwould be the vehicle of development in each-National Industrialization: Ideal and RealityoHad two key assumptions:It assumed that development involved the displacement of agrarian civilization by an urban-industrial societyNation development policy, deliberating shrinking of theagricultural population as the manufacturing and service sectors grew. Transferring of resources - Linear directionfor developmentPlaying catch-up with the West-Economic NationalismoDevelopment state:Organizes economic growth by mobilizing money and peopleUses individual and private taxes to finance public building of transport systems oImport-Substitution IndustrializationEconomic Nationalism sought to reverse the colonial division of labourResource Bondage:Dependency on primary exportsBecame the new orthodox in the post war eraTo secure an expanding industrial base, 3rdworld governments constructed political coalitions to help rapid industrializationLatin Americandevelopment allianceDevelopment Alliancewas a vehicle for political patronage:Governments could manipulate electoral supportChapter 3: The Development Project: International Relations
-1960s – 70s, Development DecadesoTo mobilize internal development cooperation. -International FrameworkoDepression(1930s) & WWII (1939-1945)The US spearheaded 2 initiatives to reconstruct the world:The bilateralMarshall PlanoFormalized under Bretton WoodsoNot fully operational until 1950sThe multilateralBretton Woodsprogram-US Bilateralism: The Marshall PlanoThe US hoped to use financial aid to stabilize discontented populations and rekindle economic growthCentral to this strategy: Containing CommunismoThe plan was a bilateral transfer of billions of dollars to Europe and JapanThe plan:Restore tradeand price stability, and expanded productionTo under cutsocialist movementsand labour militancyDollar credits, allowing recipients to purchase US goods Solidifying political loyalty to the Western “free world”-