GPO-CONAN-2017-10-15.pdf

1980 also narrowly approached was the issue of the

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1980 Also narrowly approached was the issue of the effect of the Dis- trict’s activities, the Court focusing upon the assessments against landowners as the sole means of paying expenses rather than addi- tionally noting the impact upon lessees and non-landowning resi- dents of such functions as flood control. The approach taken in this case seems different in great degree from that in prior cases and could in the future alter the results in other local government cases. These cases were extended somewhat in Ball v. James , 1981 a 5-to-4 decision that sustained a system in which voting eligibility was lim- ited to landowners and votes were allocated to these voters on the basis of the number of acres they owned. The entity was a water reclamation district that stores and delivers water to 236,000 acres of land in the state and subsidizes its water operations by selling electricity to hundreds of thousands of consumers in a nearby met- ropolitan area. The entity’s board of directors was elected through a system in which the eligibility to vote was as described above. The Court thought the entity was a specialized and limited form to which its general franchise rulings did not apply. 1982 Finding that prevention of “raiding”—the practice whereby vot- ers in sympathy with one party vote in another’s primary election in order to distort that election’s results—is a legitimate and valid state goal, as one element in the preservation of the integrity of the electoral process, the Court sustained a state law requiring those 1978 Salyer Land Co. v. Tulare Water Storage Dist., 410 U.S. 719 (1973). See also Associated Enterprises v. Toltec Watershed Improv. Dist., 410 U.S. 743 (1973) (limi- tation of franchise to property owners in the creation and maintenance of district upheld). Justices Douglas, Brennan, and Marshall dissented in both cases. Id. at 735, 745. 1979 410 U.S. at 727–28. 1980 410 U.S. at 730, 732. Thus, the Court posited reasons that might have moved the legislature to adopt the exclusions. 1981 451 U.S. 355 (1981). 1982 The water district cases were distinguished in Quinn v. Millsap, 491 U.S. 95, 109 (1989), the Court holding that a “board of freeholders” appointed to recom- mend a reorganization of local government had a mandate “far more encompassing” than land use issues, as its recommendations “affect[ ] all citizens . . . regardless of land ownership.” 2200 AMENDMENT 14—RIGHTS GUARANTEED
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voters eligible at that time to register to enroll in the party of their choice at least 30 days before the general election in order to be eligible to vote in the party’s next primary election, 8 to 11 months hence. The law did not impose a prohibition upon voting but merely imposed a time deadline for enrollment, the Court held, and it was because of the plaintiffs’ voluntary failure to register that they did not meet the deadline.
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