An eco friendly fashion brand loomstate com

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vative use of natural resources. An eco-friendly fashion brand Loomstate com- mercialized a selected student collection from this project in the fall of 2011 (Parsons School of Design 2011 ). Similar to these Parsons initiatives, in the textile industry, a luxury fashion brand Issey Miyake has made another distinctive example of zero-waste design. In 1976, designer Miyake initiated his a piece-of-cloth (A-POC) design concept to make a garment in a single piece covering the entire body, and since 1999, the designer has presented creative collections using this concept (Isseymiyake N.D.). In 2010, the Issey Miyake brand started another innovative zero-waste design approach inspired by origami, a Japanese decorative paper folding art (Hethorn and Ulasewicz 2015 ; Isseymiyake N.D.). The origami design concept allows designers to create 3D geometric forms from a fl at surface by using a computer program initially developed by a Japanese computer scientist Jun Mitani (Hethorn and Ulasewicz 2015 ; Isseymiyake N.D.). Based on the zero-waste design concepts and techniques, Issey Miyake is an outstanding example of the textile companies that have experienced huge success not only in terms of economic pro fi ts, but also in terms of environmental protection. Aside from the case of Issey Miyake, the Environmental Sustainability in the Textile Industry 37
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zero-waste design techniques, however, still hold some limitations for mass pro- duction by large textile manufacturers, due to the increased costs and reduced ef fi ciencies to execute elaborated processes required because of the existing infrastructure (Hethorn and Ulasewicz 2015 ). Besides the cost and ef fi ciency issues, an environmentally sustainable design approach, such as zero-waste design, must be continuously experimented with to develop feasible techniques to be adopted by the textile industry. 5 3D Seamless Knitting Technology 3D seamless knitting is an alternative to traditional knitting techniques that require knitting of each part of garment separately and then cutting and sewing these parts together afterward, a process in which approximately 30 % of materials are lost (David 2015 ; Ecofashiontalk 2012 ; Textilelearner N.D.). Quite different from tra- ditional knitting techniques, 3D seamless knitting technology allows minimizing waste through knitting the entire garment in one process without seams in a three-dimensional construction on the knitting machine, thus reducing labor and material loss associated with cutting and sewing processes (David 2015 ; Ecofashiontalk 2012 ; Shima Seiki N.D.a). Additionally, due to the seamless nature, garments knitted by WholeGarment ® provide advantages, such as being soft, lightweight, and stretchy, and add mobility that enhances the wearing comfort (Shima Seiki N.D.a). It should be noted that in this context, the term 3D seamless knitting is different from traditional seamless garment production using circular knitting machines in which stitching is required to produce the end product. There are two major 3D seamless garment knitting machine manufacturers in the global
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